Chinese numismatic charm – Wikipedia

cosmetic coins used for rituals

Yansheng Coins ( traditional Chinese : 厭勝錢 ; simplified chinese : 厌胜钱 ; pinyin : yàn shèng qián ), normally known as Chinese numismatic charms, refer to a collection of particular cosmetic coins that are chiefly used for rituals such as luck telling, chinese superstitions, and Feng shui. They originated during the Western Han dynasty as a form of the contemporaneous Ban Liang and Wu Zhu cash coins. Over the centuries they evolved into their own commodity, with many different shapes and sizes. Their manipulation was revitalized during the Republic of China era. normally, these coins are privately funded and cast by a rich family for their own ceremonies, although a few types of coins have been cast by respective governments or religious orders over the centuries. chinese numismatic charms typically contain hide symbolism and ocular pun. Unlike cash coins which normally lone contain two or four Hanzi characters on one slope, Chinese numismatic charms frequently contain more characters and sometimes pictures on the same side. Although Chinese numismatic charms are not a legal form of currency, they used to circulate on the chinese market alongside regular government-issued coinages. The charms were considered valuable, as they were much made from copper alloys and chinese coins were valued by their weight in bronze or brass section. In some cases, charms were made from precious metals or jade green. [ 1 ] In certain periods, some charms were used as option currencies. For example, “ synagogue coins ” were issued by Buddhist temples during the Yuan dynasty when the copper currentness was scarce or when copper production was intentionally limited by the Mongol politics.

Yansheng coins are normally heavily decorated with complicated patterns and engravings. [ citation needed ] Many of them are wear as fashion accessories or good luck charms. The Qing-dynasty-era cash coins have inscriptions of the five emperors Shunzhi, Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong, and Jiaqing, which are said to bring wealth and good luck to those that string these five coins together. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] chinese numismatic talismans have inspired like traditions in Japan, Korea and Vietnam, and much talismans from these other countries can be confused for chinese charms due to their alike symbolism and inscriptions. chinese cash coins themselves may be treated as golden charms outside of China .

etymology [edit ]

The formal name for these coins, and the word ‘s pronunciation was Yasheng coin or money ( traditional Chinese : 押胜钱 ; simplified taiwanese : 压胜钱 ; pinyin : yā shèng qián ), but in common modern usage Yansheng is the widely accepted pronunciation and spell. Yansheng coins are besides known as “ flower coins ” or “ patterned coins ” ( traditional Chinese : 花錢 ; simplified chinese : 花钱 ; pinyin : huā qián ). They are alternatively referred to as “ gambling coins ” ( wanqian, 玩钱 ) in China. Historically, the term “ Yansheng coins ” was more popular, but in advanced China and Taiwan the term “ flower coins ” has become the more coarse name. [ 4 ]

history and use [edit ]

Yansheng coins first appeared during the Western Han dynasty as superstitious objects to communicate with the dead, to pray for favorable wishes, to terrify ghosts, or to use as golden money. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the imperial government issued coins for national festivals or ceremonies such as the emperor ‘s birthday. It was park for the emperor ‘s sixtieth birthday to be celebrated by issuing a charm with the dedication Wanshou Tongbao ( 萬夀通寶 ), because 60 years symbolizes a arrant motorbike of the 10 celestial stems and the 12 earthly branches. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] In the case of these coins, “ charm ” in this context is a catchall term for coin-shaped items which were not official ( or counterfeit ) money. [ 7 ] however, these numismatic objects were not all necessarily considered “ charming ” or “ golden ”, as some of these Chinese numismatic charms can be used as “ mnemonic coins ”. [ 7 ] The term is further used to identify a count of gambling tokens that were based on taiwanese cash coins or incorporate such designs. [ 8 ]

Origins [edit ]

Two green coins with square holes An easterly Han dynasty Wu Zhu cash mint with extra decorations The earliest chinese neologism bore inscriptions that described their set of origin during the Warring States period and sometimes their noun phrase rate. early forms of notation came to be included, such as circles representing the sun, crescents representing the moonlight, and dots representing the stars, vitamin a well as blob and lines. These symbols sometimes protruded from the surface of the mint ( chinese : 阳文 ; Pinyin : yáng wén ) and sometimes they were carved, engraved or stamped ( chinese : 阴文 ; Pinyin : yīn wén ). These symbols would finally evolve into taiwanese charms with coins in the first place being used as charms. Dots were the first and most common form of symbol that appeared on ancient chinese cash coins, such as the Ban Liang coins, and appeared largely during the Han dynasty. These symbols were normally on the obverse side of the coins and were probably carved as a partially of the mold, meaning that they were intentionally added. Crescent symbols on both the obverse and overrule sides of coins were added around the same period as the dots. After this, both regular chinese numerals and counting rod numerals began to appear on cash coins during the begin of the Eastern Han dynasty. chinese characters began to appear on these early cash coins which could mean they were intended to circulate in sealed regions or might indicate the names of those who cast the coins. Coins made under Emperor Wang Mang of the Xin dynasty had a distinctive appearance from neologism of the Han dynasty era, and were late used as the basis of many chinese amulets and charms. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] Ancient Chinese text refer to the Hanzi character for “ star ” ( 星 ) to not entirely refer to the stars that are visible at night but to besides have an extra mean of “ to spread ” and “ to disseminate ” ( 布, ). other old chinese sources stated that the character for “ star ” was synonymous with the term for “ to give out ” and “ to distribute ” ( 散, sàn ). Based on these associations and the links between neologism and power, an sympathize formed that cash coins should be akin to the star-filled night sky : far-flung in circulation, numerous in quantity, and distributed throughout the world. Another hypothesis on why asterisk, lunar month, cloud and dragon symbols appeared on taiwanese cash coins is that they represent yin and yang and the wu xing – a cardinal belief of the time – and specifically the element of water ( 水 ). The Hanzi character for a “ water spring “ ( 泉 ) besides meant “ mint ” in ancient China. In chinese mythology, the lunar month was an envoy or messenger from the heavens and water system was cold breeze of yin energy that was accumulated on the moon. The daydream was the spirit in charge of body of water in Chinese mythology, and the crescent symbols on cash coins could indicate that they were meant to circulate like water, which flows, gushes, and rises. The symbolism of “ clouds ” or “ auspicious clouds ” may refer to the fact that clouds lawsuit rain ; the I Ching mentions that water appears in the heavens as clouds, again bringing the significance that cash coins should circulate freely. The appearance of wiggly-lines that represent chinese dragons happened around this fourth dimension and may have besides been based on the wu xing component of urine, as dragons were thought to be water animals that were the bringers of both the winds and the rain ; the dragons represented the state, with freely flowing currency. In later taiwanese charms, amulets, and talismans, the draco became a symbol of the taiwanese emperor and the central government of China and its power. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ]

late developments [edit ]

Most taiwanese numismatic charms produced from the start of the Han dynasty until the end of the Northern and Southern dynasties ( 206 BCE – 589 CE ) were identical similar in appearance to the taiwanese cash coins that were in circulation. The only speciate component that chinese talismans had at the clock time were the symbols on the reverse of these coins. These symbols included tortoises, snakes, double-edged swords, the sun, the moon, stars, depictions of celebrated people and the twelve Chinese zodiac. The major development and development of Chinese numismatic talismans happened during the period that started from the Six Dynasties and lasted until the Mongol Yuan dynasty. It was during this era that chinese numismatic charms began using inscriptions that wished for “ longevity ” and “ happiness ”, and these charms and amulets became extremely coarse in chinese society. taoist and Buddhist amulets besides began to appear during this period, as did marriage coin charms with “ Kama Sutra -like ” imagination. chinese numismatic charms besides began to be made from iron, run, tin, silver, amber, porcelain, jade, and paper. These charms besides featured newly scripts and fonts such as unconstipated handwriting, grass handwriting, seal handwriting, and Fulu ( Taoist “ charming writing ” script ). The association of chinese characters into raw and mysterious forms added concealed symbolism. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] Charms with inscriptions such as fú dé cháng shòu ( 福德長壽 ) and qiān qiū wàn suì ( 千秋萬歲, 1,000 fall, 10,000 years ) [ 17 ] were first base cast around the end of the Northern dynasties time period and continued through the Khitan Liao, Jurchen Jin and Mongol Yuan dynasties. During the Tang and Song dynasties, open-work charms began to include images of chinese dragons, qilin, flowers and early plants, fish, deer, insects, taiwanese phoenixes, pisces, and people. The open-work charms from this era were used as invest accessories, adornment, or to decorate horses. The very common spell inscription cháng mìng fù guì ( 長命富貴 ) was introduced during the Tang and Song dynasties, when the inverse side of these talismans started showing taoist imagination such as yin-yang symbols, the eight trigrams, and the taiwanese zodiac. During the Song dynasty, a large number of chinese talismans were cast, particularly horse coins which were used as gambling tokens and board plot pieces. pisces charms meant to be worn around the shank were introduced during the reign of the Khitan Liao. other new types emerged during the Jurchen Jin dynasty, with the influence of the steppe culture and arts of the Jurchen people. The Jin dynasty merged the Jurchen culture with chinese administration, and the charms of the Jin dynasty innovated on the talismans of the Song dynasty which used hide symbolism, allusions, incriminate suggestions, and phonetic homonym to describe a meaning. Under the Jurchens, new symbolisms emerged : a dragon representing the emperor, a phoenix representing the empress, tigers representing ministers, lions representing the government as a hale, and cranes and pine trees that symbolize longevity. Hidden symbolism such as jujube fruits for “ morning or early ” and chickens symbolizing “ being lucky ” besides emerged under the Jurchens. Under the Ming and Manchu Qing dynasties, there was increase fabrication of amulets with inscriptions that wish for adept luck and those that celebrate events. These numismatic talismans depict what is called the “ three many ” : happiness, longevity, and having many progeny. early common wishes included those for wealth and receiving a high rank from the imperial examination system. During this period, more chinese numismatic talismans began using implied and concealed meanings with ocular puns. This practice was particularly expanded upon during the Manchu Qing dynasty. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ]

Styles [edit ]

A hole coin with 24 Chinese characters on each face A Yansheng mint of chinese characters 福 ( left ) and 壽 ( correct ) repeated in respective scripts. Qing dynasty antique Unlike government cast taiwanese cash coins which typically only have four characters, Chinese numismatic charms much have more characters and may depict images of versatile scenes. [ 22 ] They can come in several unlike styles :

  • carved or engraved (Chinese: 镂空品; pinyin: lòukōng pǐn)
    • with animal
    • with people
    • with plants
  • words or characters on coin (Chinese: 钱文品; pinyin: qián wén pǐn)
  • sentences or wishes (Chinese: 吉语品; pinyin: jí yǔ pǐn)
  • Chinese zodiac (Chinese: 生肖品; pinyin: shēngxiào pǐn)
  • Taoism, Bagua (Chinese: 八卦品; pinyin: bāguà pǐn), or Buddhism gods (Chinese: 神仙佛道品; pinyin: shénxiān fó dào pǐn)
  • Horses or military themes (Chinese: 打马格品; pinyin: dǎ mǎ gé pǐn)
  • Abnormal or combined styles (Chinese: 异形品; pinyin: yìxíng pǐn)

early Chinese numismatic charms tended to be cast, until machine-struck coinage appeared in China during the nineteenth hundred. A big number of Chinese numismatic charms have been cast over a period more than 2000 years, these charms have evolved with the changing culture as clock passed which is reflected in their themes and inscriptions. [ 23 ] In his 2020 sour Cast Chinese Amulets British numismatist and generator David Hartill had documented over 5000 unlike types of Chinese numismatic charms. [ 23 ] Traditionally catalogues of these amulets are arranged in diverse of phone number of methods such as by form, their size, the entail of the charms, the Emperor ‘s name, or any other common feature of speech. [ 23 ] While other catalogues measuredly avoid such categorizations as it would not be immediately unclutter to a novitiate ( non-expert ) whether an individual chinese amulet would be considered to be a “ golden “, “ religious “, “ family “, or “ Coin “ character spell. [ 23 ]

Types of chinese charms [edit ]

By affair [edit ]

good luck charms [edit ]

taiwanese “ adept fortune ” coins frequently contain inscriptions wishing for auspicious outcomes. chinese numismatic “ good fortune charms ” or “ auspicious charms ” are inscribed with versatile chinese characters representing good luck and prosperity. There was democratic impression in their potent impression and they were traditionally used in an effort to scare aside malefic and protect families. They by and large contain either four or eight characters wishing for good fortune, thoroughly luck, money, a hanker life, many children, and good results in the Imperial examination system. [ 24 ] Some of these charms used images or ocular puns to make a instruction wishing for prosperity and achiever. Some sport pomegranates which symbolise the desire for successful and skilled male children, to strengthen the family and continue its descent. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Another common theme on chinese numismatic charms are rhinoceroses. Its depiction is associated with happiness, because the chinese words for “ rhinoceros ” and “ happiness ” are both pronounce xi. The rhinoceros became extinct in southerly China during the ancient period and the animal became enshrined in myth, with legends that the stars in the flip were being reflected in the veins and patterns of a rhinoceros french horn. The horn of the rhinoceros was believed to emit a vaporization that could penetrate bodies body of water, traverse the skies and open channels to communicate directly with the spirits. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] A phone number of good fortune charms contain inscriptions such as téng jiāo qǐ fèng ( 騰蛟起鳳, “ a draco soar and a phoenix dance ” which is a mention to a story of Wang Bo ), [ 32 ] lián shēng guì zǐ ( 連生貴子, “ May there be the give birth of one honorable son after another ” ), [ 33 ] and zhī lán yù shù ( 芝蘭玉樹, “ A Talented and Noble Young Man ” ). [ 34 ]

safe travel charms [edit ]

Safe journey charms are a major class of Chinese numismatic charms, which were produced out of a concern for personal safety while traveling. One side would normally have an inscription wishing for the holder of the charm to be granted a safe travel, while the other would have park amulet themes such as the Bagua, weapons, and stars. It is believed that the Boxers used safe travel charms as badges of membership during their rebellion against the Manchu Qing dynasty. [ 35 ]

peace charms [edit ]

A gourd-shaped chinese numismatic peace capture peace charms ( traditional Chinese : 天下太平錢 ; Simplified chinese : 天下太平钱 ; Pinyin : tiān xià tài píng qián ) have inscriptions wishing for peace and prosperity and are based on chinese coins that use the characters 太平 ( tài píng ). [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] These coins are often considered to have charm-like powers. An archaeological find of the 1980s established that they were first frame by the Kingdom of Shu after the flop of the Han dynasty. This mint bore the inscription tài píng bǎi qián ( 太平百錢 ), was worth one hundred taiwanese cash coins, and bore a calligraphic stylus which resembled charms more than contemporary neologism. During the Song dynasty, Emperor Taizong issued a coin with the dedication tài píng tōng bǎo ( 太平通寶 ), and under the reign of the Chongzhen Emperor appeared a Ming dynasty coin with the dedication tài píng ( 太平 ) on the reverse and chóng zhēn tōng bǎo ( 崇禎通寶 ) on the obverse. During the Taiping Rebellion, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom issued coins ( “ holy place coins ” ) with the inscription tài píng tiān guó ( 太平天囯 ). peace charms, which were privately cast with the desire to wish for peace, were used on a daily footing throughout China ‘s churning and frequently crimson history. Under the Qing dynasty chinese charms with the inscription tiān xià tài píng ( 天下太平 ) became a common sight. This phrase could be translated as “ peace under eden ”, “ peace and repose under heaven ”, or “ an empire at peace ”. peace charms are besides found to depict the twelve Chinese zodiac and contain ocular puns. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ] During the Qing dynasty, a tài píng tōng bǎo ( 太平通寶 ) [ a ] peace charm was created that had extra characters and symbolism at the rim of the coin : on the forget and good sides of the charm the characters 吉 and 祥, which can be translated as “ good luck ”, while on the invert side the characters rú yì ( 如意, “ as you wish ” ) is located at the top and bottom of the rim. When these four characters are combined they read rú yì jí xiáng which is translated as “ good fortune according to your wishes ”, a popular construction in China. This capture is a very rare design due to its doubly rim ( 重輪 ), which can be described as having a flimsy round rim surrounding the broad out rim. This specific charm has an extra dedication in the recess area of the rim ; an exemplar of a contemporary taiwanese cash coin which had these features would be a 100 cash xianfeng zhongbao ( 咸豐重寶 ) mint. On the reverse side of this Manchu Qing dynasty era appeal are a battalion of inscriptions that have auspicious meanings such as qū xié qiǎn shà ( 驅邪遣煞, “ oust and rap dead malefic influences ” ), tassels and swords which represent a emblematic victory of dependable over evil, two bats which is a ocular pun as the chinese word for squash racket is alike to the chinese word for happiness, and the extra inscription of dāng wàn ( 當卍, “ Value Ten Thousand ”, the supposed symbolic appellation ). [ 43 ] [ 44 ]

burying coins [edit ]

taiwanese burial coins made of amber during the Jin dynasty Chinese burial coins ( traditional Chinese : 瘞錢 ; Simplified taiwanese : 瘗钱 ; Pinyin : yì qián ) a.k.a. benighted coins ( traditional Chinese : 冥錢 ; Simplified chinese : 冥钱 ; Pinyin : míng qián ) [ 45 ] [ 46 ] are chinese imitations of currency that are placed in the scratch of a person that is to be buried. The practice dates to the Shang dynasty when cowrie shells were used, in the impression that the money would be used in the afterlife as a bribe to Yan Wang ( besides known as Yama ) for a more favorable spiritual address. The exercise changed to replica currency to deter dangerous robbers, [ 47 ] [ 48 ] and these coins and other imitation currencies were referred to as clay money ( 泥錢 ) or earthenware money ( 陶土幣 ). chinese graves have been found with clay versions of what the chinese consult to as “ gloomy currency ” ( 下幣 ), such as cowrie shells, Ban Liang, Wu Zhu, Daquan Wuzhu, Tang dynasty Kaiyuan Tongbao, Song dynasty Chong Ni Zhong Bao, Liao dynasty Tian Chao Wan Shun, Bao Ning Tong Bao, Da Kang Tong Bao, Jurchen Jin dynasty Da Ding Tong Bao, and Qing dynasty Qian Long Tong Bao cash coins. Graves from respective periods have besides been found with imitations of gold and silver “ high currency ” ( 上幣 ), such as Kingdom of Chu ‘s gold home plate money ( 泥「郢稱」 ( 楚國黃金貨 ) ), yuan jin ( 爰金 ), silk funerary money ( 絲織品做的冥幣 ), gold proto-indo european money ( 陶質 ” 金餅 ” ), and other cake-shaped objects ( 冥器 ). In modern use, Joss composition takes the space of mud replica, and is burned quite than buried with the deceased. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ]

“ Laid to Rest ” burying charms [edit ]

chinese “ Laid to Rest ” burial charms are bronze funerary charms or coins normally found in graves. They measure from 2.4 to 2.45 centimetres ( 0.94 to 0.96 in ) in diameter with a thickness of 1.3 to 1.4 millimetres ( 0.051 to 0.055 in ) and they contain the obverse inscription rù tǔ wéi ān ( 入土为安 ) which means “ to be laid to rest ”, while the reverse is blank. These coins were by and large found in graves dating from the late Qing dynasty period, though one was found in a coin roll up of Northern Song dynasty coins. The wéi is written using a simplified chinese quality ( 为 ) preferably than the traditional chinese version of the character ( 為 ). These coins are frequently excluded from numismatic reference point books on chinese coinage or talismans due to many taboos, as they were placed in the mouths of dead people and are considered unlucky and distressing, and are undesired by most collectors. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ]

marriage and arouse education charms [edit ]

Six square-hole coins of different colours A group of Chinese arouse education coins, each showing four different intimate positions. Chinese marriage charms ( traditional Chinese : 夫婦和合花錢 ; Simplified chinese : 夫妇和合花钱 ; Pinyin : fū fù hé hé huā qián ) are chinese numismatic charms or amulets that depict scenes of sexual intercourse in diverse positions. They are known by many early names, including mystery turn coins ( traditional Chinese : 秘戲錢 ; Simplified chinese : 秘戏钱 ; Pinyin : mì xì qián ), [ 56 ] secret fun coins, obscure ( evade ) the fire ( of lecherousness ) coins ( traditional Chinese : 避火錢 ; Simplified chinese : 避火钱 ; Pinyin : bì huǒ qián ), chinese marriage coins, taiwanese love coins, chinese give money ( traditional Chinese : 春錢 ; Simplified chinese : 春钱 ; Pinyin : chūn qián ), taiwanese erotic coins, and chinese marriage coins. They illustrate how the newlywed couple should perform on their wedding night to meet their responsibilities and obligations to produce children. They may depict dates and peanuts symbolising the wish for reproduction, lotus seeds symbolising “ continuous births ”, chestnuts symbolising male offspring, pomegranates symbolising richness, brans symbolising sons that will be successful, “ dragon and phoenix ” candles, cypress leaves, qilins, bronze mirrors, shoes, saddles, and other things associated with traditional chinese weddings. The diagnose “ leap money ” is a reference to an ancient chinese ritual in which girls and boys would sing quixotic music to each other from across a stream. sex acts were traditionally only hardly depicted in taiwanese artwork but stone carvings from the Han dynasty showcasing intimate sexual intercourse were found and bronze mirrors with assorted sexual themes were common during the Tang dynasty. It was besides during the Tang dynasty that coins graphically depicting arouse started being produced. chinese love charms often have the inscription “ wind, flowers, bamboozle and lunar month ” ( 風花雪月 ) which is an confuse poetry referring to a happy and frivolous plant, although every individual character might besides be used to identify a taiwanese goddess or the “ Seven Fairy Maidens “ ( 七仙女 ). other chinese wedding charms much have inscriptions like fēng huā yí rén ( 風花宜人 ), míng huáng yù yǐng ( 明皇禦影 ), and lóng fèng chéng yàng ( 龍鳳呈樣 ). [ 57 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] These charms could besides be used in brothels where a traveler could use the illustrations to make a request of a prostitute without knowing the local language. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] Some chinese marriage charms contain references to the well-known ninth century poem Chang hen ge, with figures illustrated in four unlike sex positions and four chinese characters representing the spring, wind, peaches, and plums. [ 65 ] A invention of Chinese, Korean, and vietnamese marriage amulets display a pair of fish on one side and the dedication Eo ssang ( 魚双, “ pair of Fish ” ) on the other side. [ 66 ] In versatile oriental cultures pisces are associated with enough and abundance. pisces are furthermore noted for their prolific ability to reproduce and that when they swim that this was in gladden and are consequently associated with a felicitous and harmonious marriage. In Feng Shui, a pair of fish are associated with conjugal bliss and the joy of being in a marital union .

House charms [edit ]

Chinese house charms refer to Chinese numismatic talismans placed within a house to bring good luck to the place, or to balance the house according to Feng shui. These charms date to the Han dynasty and were placed in houses even while the construct was under construction ; they were besides placed in temples and other buildings. many traditional taiwanese houses tend to display images of the menshen ( threshold defender ). Some buildings were built with a “ foundation stone ” ( 石敢當 ), based on the Mount Tai in Shandong, with the dedication tài shān zài cǐ ( 泰山在此, “ Mount Tai is here ” ) or tài shān shí gǎn dāng ( 泰山石敢當, “ the stone of Mount Tai dares to resist ” ). Ridgepoles in taiwanese buildings are normally painted red and are decorated with red newspaper, fabric banners, and Bagua charms. Five poison charms are frequently used to deter undesirable human visitors equally well as animal pests. [ relevance questioned ] Many Chinese firm charms are small bronze statues of beard old men assigned to protect the house from evil spirits, the God of War, Zhong Kui ( 鍾馗 ), and the “ diametric deity ”. House charms tend to have inscriptions inviting good luck into the home like cháng mìng fù guì ( 長命富貴, “ longevity, wealth and honor ” ), fú shòu tóng tiān ( 福壽同天, “ estimable fortune and longevity on the same day ” ), zhāo cái jìn bǎo ( 招財進寶, “ attracts wealth and care for ” ), sì jì píng ān ( 四季平安, “ peace for the four seasons ” ), wǔ fú pěng shòu ( 五福捧壽, “ five fortunes wall longevity ” ), shàng tiān yán hǎo shì ( 上天言好事, “ ascend to heaven and speak of commodity deeds ” ), and huí gōng jiàng jí xiáng ( 回宮降吉祥, “ return to your palace and bring good luck ” ). [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ]

Palace cash coins [edit ]

Palace cash coins are sometimes included as a class of Chinese numismatic charms. [ 72 ] These special coins, according to the Standard Catalog of World Coins by Krause Publications, were specifically produced to be presented as gifts during chinese new class to the people who worked in the taiwanese imperial palace such as imperial guards and eunuchs, who would hang these limited coins below lamps. [ 72 ] In his book Qing Cash, published by the Royal Numismatic Society in the year 2003, David Hartill noted that these palace cash coins were only produced during the administration of a new reign era style. [ 72 ] The first chinese palace cash coins were produced in the year 1736 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor and tend to be between 30 millimeters and 40 millimeters in diameter. [ 72 ] These palace cash coins were produced until the end of the Qing dynasty. [ 72 ] These coins contain the reign titles Qianlong, Jiaqing, Daoguang, Xianfeng, Tongzhi, Guangxu, or Xuantong with “ Tongbao ” ( 通寶 ), or rarely “ Zhongbao ” ( 重寶 ), in their obverse dedication and the reverse dedication “ Tianxia Taiping ” ( 天下太平 ). These particular cash coins were wrapped inside of a piece of orthogonal fabric and every clock that an Emperor died ( or “ ascended to his ancestors ” ) the coins were replaced with raw predominate titles. Some Tianxia Taiping cash coins were manufactured by the Ministry of Revenue while others were produced by private mints. Palace issues tend to be larger than circulation cash coins with the same inscriptions. [ 74 ]

By form and design [edit ]

Most taiwanese numismatic charms imitated the round coins with a feather hole which were in circulation when the charms first appeared. As the charms evolved individually from government-minted coinage, [ 75 ] coins shaped like spades, locks, fish, peaches, and gourds emerged. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ] though most retained the appearance of contemporaneous chinese neologism .

Gourd charms [edit ]

Gourd charms ( traditional Chinese : 葫蘆錢 ; Simplified taiwanese : 葫芦钱 ; Pinyin : hú lu qián ) are shaped like calabashes ( bottle gourds ). These charms are used to wish for good health, as the bottle gourd is associated with traditional taiwanese medicine, or for many sons, as trailing calabash vines are associated with men and carry ten thousand seeds. As the first character in the gourd is pronounced as ( 葫 ) which sounds alike to , the pronunciation of the taiwanese password for “ protect ” ( 護 ) or for “ grace ” ( 祜 ), gourd charms are besides used to ward off malefic spirits. Calabashes were believed to have the charming power of protecting children from smallpox, and gourd charms were believed to keep children healthy. Calabashes are besides shaped like the Arabic numeral “ 8 ”, which is a lucky issue in China. A random variable of the gourd spell is shaped like two stacked cash coins, a smaller one at top, to resemble a calabash. These charms have four characters and auspicious messages. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ]
A gourd charm which looks like two Wu Zhu coins with bat figures obscuring the character at their intersection A ocular pun using a bat and the “ eyes ” of two Wu Zhu cash coins. The gourd charm pictured to the right, which is composed of two replica of Wu Zhu cash coins with a bat placed to obscure the character at their intersection, forms a ocular pun. The taiwanese word for “ squash racket ” sounds similar to that of “ happiness ”, the square hole in the focus on of a cash coin is referred to as an “ center ” ( 眼, yǎn ), and the taiwanese bible for “ coin ” ( 錢, qián ) has about the like pronunciation as “ before ” ( 前, qián ). This combination can be interpreted as “ happiness is before your eyes ”. [ 83 ]

Vault Protector coins [edit ]

Vault Protector coins ( traditional Chinese : 鎮庫錢 ; Simplified chinese : 镇库钱 ; Pinyin : zhèn kù qián ) were a type of mint created by chinese mints. These coins were importantly larger, heavier and thicker than even cash coins and were well-made as they were designed to occupy a special place within the treasury of the mint. The treasury had a spirit hall for offerings to the gods of the Chinese pantheon, and Vault Protector coins would be hung with red silk and tassels for the Chinese God of Wealth. These coins were believed to have charm-like charming powers that would protect the vault while bringing wealth and fortune to the treasury. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] Vault defender coins were produced for over a thousand years starting in the country of Southern Tang during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms menstruation and were produced until the Qing dynasty. Vault defender coins were typically cast to commemorate the opening of new furnaces for casting cash coins .

Open-work charms [edit ]

Open-work money ( traditional Chinese : 鏤空錢 ; Simplified chinese : 镂空钱 ; Pinyin : lòu kōng qián ) besides known as “ elegant ” money ( traditional Chinese : 玲瓏錢 ; Simplified chinese : 玲珑钱 ; Pinyin : líng lóng qián ) are types of Chinese numismatic charms characterised by irregularly shaped openings or holes between the early design elements. Most open-work charms have mirrored designs on the reverse side, with chinese characters rarely appearing. They tend have a single large round off hole in the middle of the coin, or a square hole for those that feature designs of buildings. Compared to early chinese charms, open-work charms are significantly larger and more often made from bronze than boldness. They beginning appeared during the Han dynasty, though most of these are minor specimens taken from diverse utensils. They became more popular during the reigns of the Song, Mongol Yuan, and Ming dynasties but lost popularity under the Manchu Qing dynasty. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] [ 88 ] [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Categories of open-work charms :

Category Image
Open-work charms with immortals and people 91643 SMVK OM objekt 118302.jpg
Dragon open-work charms 91643 SMVK OM objekt 118342.jpg
Phoenix open-work charms
Peacock open-work charms 91643 SMVK OM objekt 118324.jpg
Qilin open-work charms
Bat open-work charms
Lotus open-work charms
Flower and Vine open-work charms
Open-work charms with buildings and temples[b]
Fish open-work charms 91619 SMVK EM objekt 1016714 (1).jpg
Deer open-work charms Section 8.6 Open-work charm - Deer or other animals - John Ferguson.jpg
Lion open-work charms
Tiger open-work charms
Rabbit open-work charms
Bird open-work charms
Crane open-work charms
Horse open-work charms

24 character charms [edit ]

24 character “Good Fortune” charms ( traditional Chinese : 二十四福字錢 ; Simplified chinese : 二十四福字钱 ; Pinyin : èr shí sì fú zì qián ) and 24 character longevity charms ( traditional Chinese : 二十四壽字錢 ; Simplified chinese : 二十四寿字钱 ; Pinyin : èr shí sì shòu zì qián ) consult to Chinese numismatic charms which have a radiation pattern of twenty-four characters on one side which contains a variation of either the Hanzi character ( 福, effective luck ) or shòu ( 壽, longevity ), the two most-common Hanzi characters to appear on chinese charms. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] [ 94 ] [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The ancient Chinese believed that the more characters a appeal had, the more good luck it would bring, although it is not known why 24 characters is the default option used for these charms. One proposal claims that 24 was selected because it is a multiple of the number eight, which was seen as auspicious to the ancient taiwanese ascribable to its alike pronunciation to the word for “ good luck ”. It may besides represent the kernel of the twelve Chinese zodiac and the twelve earthly branches. early possibilities include the 24 directions of the chinese feng shui compass ( 罗盘 ), that taiwanese years are divided into 12 months and 12 shichen, that the Chinese season markers are divided into 24 solar terms, or the 24 examples of filial piety from Confucianism. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

chinese Spade charms [edit ]

Spade charms are charms based on spade money, an early shape of chinese mint. nigger charms are based on Spade money which circulated during the Zhou dynasty until they were abolished by the Qin dynasty. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] Spade money was concisely reintroduced by Wang Mang during the Xin dynasty, and chinese nigger charms are broadly based on this coinage. [ 102 ] [ 103 ] [ 104 ]

chinese lock charms [edit ]

chinese lock charms ( traditional Chinese : 家鎖 ; Simplified chinese : 家锁 ; Pinyin : jiā suǒ ) are based on locks, and symbolize protective covering from evil spirits of both the holder and their property. They were besides thought to bring good luck, longevity, and high results in the imperial examination, and were often tied around the necks of children by Buddhist or Taoist priests. chinese lock charms are flat and without moving parts, with a form that resembles the Hanzi character “ 凹 ”, which can translate to “ concave ”. All chinese engage charms have chinese characters on them. An exemplar of a chinese lock charm is the “ hundred family lock ” ( traditional Chinese : 百家鎖 ), traditionally funded by a poor family asking a hundred early families to each give a cash mint as a gesture of good will for their newborn child, vesting an interest in the child ‘s security. many chinese interlock charms are used to wish for constancy. other designs of lock charms include religious mountains, the Bagua, and Yin Yang symbol. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] [ 107 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ]

nonuple Seal Script charms [edit ]

A nonuple Seal Script charms with the inscription Benming Yuanshen ( 本命元神 ). nonuple Seal Script charms ( traditional Chinese : 九疊文錢 ; Simplified chinese : 九叠文钱 ; Pinyin : jiǔ dié wén qián ) are chinese numismatic charms with inscriptions in nonuple seal script, a style of seal script that was in function from the Song dynasty until the Qing dynasty. Examples from the Song dynasty are rare. Around the goal of the Ming dynasty there were nonuple Seal Script charms cast with the inscription fú shòu kāng níng ( 福壽康寧, “ happiness, longevity, health and composure ” ), and bǎi fú bǎi shòu ( 百福百壽, “ one hundred happinesses and one hundred longevities ” ) on the turn back side. [ 110 ]

fish charms [edit ]

Fish charms ( traditional Chinese : 魚形飾仵 ; Simplified chinese : 鱼形饰仵 ; Pinyin : yú xíng shì wǔ ) are shaped like pisces. The taiwanese character for “ fish ” ( 魚, ) is pronounced the lapp as that for “ excess ” ( 余, ), [ 111 ] [ 112 ] [ 113 ] [ 114 ] so the symbol for fish has traditionally been associated with good luck, fortune, longevity, fertility, and other auspicious things. As the chinese fictional character for “ net income ” ( 利, ) is pronounce like to “ carp ” ( 鯉, ), [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ] carp are most normally used for the theme of fish charms. pisces charms were often used in the belief that they would protect the health of children, and featured inscriptions wishing for the children who carry them to stay alive and condom. [ 120 ] [ 121 ] [ 122 ]

taiwanese peach charms [edit ]

A taiwanese yellowish pink appeal for “ good luck ” ( 福 ) and “ longevity ” ( 壽 ). Chinese peach charms ( traditional Chinese : 桃形掛牌 ; Simplified chinese : 桃形挂牌 ; Pinyin : táo xíng guà pái ) are spill the beans -shaped charms used to wish for longevity. The ancient Chinese believed the yellowish pink tree to possess life force as its blossoms appeared before leaves sprouted. [ citation needed ] taiwanese Emperors would write the character for longevity ( 壽 ) to those of the lowest social class if they had reached high ages, [ 123 ] [ 124 ] which was seen to be among the greatest giving. This character frequently appears on smasher charms and other Chinese numismatic charms. spill the beans charms besides frequently depict the Queen Mother of the West or carry inscriptions such as “ long life ” ( 長命, cháng mìng ). peach charms were besides used to wish for wealth depicting the character “ 富 ” or higher Mandarin ranks using the character “ 貴 ”. [ 125 ] [ 126 ] [ 127 ]

little shoe charms [edit ]

Little shoe charms are based on the association of shoes with richness and the chinese womanly ideal of humble feet, which in Confucianism is associated with a narrow vagina, something the ancient Chinese saw as a sexually desirable trait to allow for birth of more male offspring. treatment to create little feet was normally accomplished by foot bind from a young old age. Girls would hang fiddling shoe charms over their beds in the belief that it would help them find sleep together. chinese small shoe charms tend to be around one inch ( 25 millimeter ) farseeing. Shoes are besides associated with wealth because their supreme headquarters allied powers europe is similar to that of a sycee. [ 128 ]

taiwanese pendant charms [edit ]

Chinese pendant charms ( traditional Chinese : 掛牌 ; Simplified taiwanese : 挂牌 ; Pinyin : guà pái ) are chinese numismatic charms that are used as cosmetic pendants. From the get down of the Han dynasty, chinese people began wearing these charms around their necks or waists as pendants, or attached these charms to the rafters of their houses, pagodas, temples or other buildings, arsenic well as on lanterns. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] [ 131 ] [ 132 ] It is believed that open-work charms may have been the first base chinese charms that were used in this fashion. fish, lock, spade, and peach charms were worn on a casual basis, with fish and interlock charms worn chiefly by youthful children and infants. other charms were entirely used for specific rituals or holidays. Some Han dynasty earned run average charms contained inscriptions such as ri ru qian jin ( 日入千金, “ may you earn a 1,000 gold everyday ” ), chu xiong qu yang ( 除凶去央, “ do away with evil and chase away calamity ” ), bi bing mo dang ( 辟兵莫當, “ avoid hostilities and ward off nausea ” ), or chang wu xiang wang ( 長毋相忘, “ do not forget your friends ” ). Others resembled contemporary cash coins with add dots and stars. Some chandelier charms had a unmarried loop while most others besides had either a squarely or turn hole in the center. Some chinese chandelier charms contain the Hanzi character gua ( 挂, “ to hang ” ), though their form makes their function obvious. Although most chandelier charms contain pictorial illustrations, the association of taiwanese characters into newly and mystic emblematic forms reached an evening greater extreme when Taoists introduced “ Taoist magic writing ” ( 符文 ). [ 15 ] [ 16 ]

chinese palindrome charms [edit ]

Chinese palindrome charms are very rare Chinese numismatic charms that depict what in China is known as “ palindromic poetry ” ( 回文詩 ), a mannequin which has to make sense when reading in either direction but may not be a dependable palindrome. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] Because of their rarity, chinese palindrome charms are normally excluded from reference book books on Chinese numismatic charms. A know example of a presumably Qing dynasty period Chinese palindrome charm reads “ 我笑他說我看他打我容他罵 ” ( “ I, laugh, he/she, talks, I, expect, he/she, hits, I, am being kind, he/she, scolds ” ) in this case the mean of the words can be altered depending on how this dedication is read, as definitions may vary depending on the preceding pronoun. This appeal could be read both clockwise and counter-clockwise, and tells of two sides of a contentious relationship which could be read as representing either party :

Traditional Chinese Pinyin Translation
笑他說我 xiào tā shuō wǒ Laugh at him/her scolding me.
看他打我 kàn tā dǎ wǒ Look at him/her fight me.
容他罵我 róng tā mà wǒ Be tolerant of him/her cursing me.
我罵他容 wǒ mà tā róng I curse and he/she is tolerant.
我打他看 wǒ dǎ tā kàn I fight and he/she watches.
我說他笑 wǒ shuō tā xiào I speak and he/she laughs.

The invert side of this coin features images of thunder and cloud. [ 135 ] [ further explanation needed ]

taiwanese charms with mint inscriptions [edit ]

chinese charms of diverse sizes with both actual and fantasy cash coin inscriptions.

chinese charms with mint inscriptions ( traditional Chinese : 錢文錢 ; Simplified chinese : 钱文钱 ; Pinyin : qián wén qián ) used the contemporaneous inscriptions of circulating cash coins. These types of numismatic charms use the official inscriptions of government cast coinage due to the fabulous affiliation of Hanzi characters and charming powers ampere well as the cultural esteem for the authority of the government and its decrees. For this reason tied regular cash coins had been attributed supernatural qualities in respective cultural phenomenon such as folk music tales and feng shui. Some official mint inscriptions already had auspicious meanings, and these were selected to be used on taiwanese numismatic talismans. During times of crisis and disunity, such as under the reign of Wang Mang, the phone number of charms with coin inscriptions seem to have increased enormously. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ] interim, other chinese cash coin inscriptions were selected due to a perceived power in the metal used in the hurl of these contemporaneous cash coins ; an model would be the Later Zhou dynasty era zhōu yuán tōng bǎo ( 周元通寶 ) appeal based on cash coins with the lapp inscription. tied after the fall of the Xin dynasty, charms were made with inscriptions from Wang Mang era neologism like the Northern Zhou earned run average wǔ xíng dà bù ( 五行大布 ) because it could be translated as “ 5 elements mint ”. similarly with the Later Zhou dynasty ‘s zhōu yuán tōng bǎo ( 周元通寶 ), the Song dynasty era tài píng tōng bǎo ( 太平通寶 ), the Khitan Liao dynasty earned run average qiān qiū wàn suì ( 千秋萬歲, “ thousand autumns and ten thousand years ” ), a well as the Jurchen Jin dynasty era tài hé zhòng bǎo ( 泰和重寶 ). Northern Song dynasty era charms may have been based on the same beget coins that were used to produce the official politics cash coins, and given different reverses to distinguish them as charms. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] During the Ming dynasty there were chinese charms based on the hóng wǔ tōng bǎo ( 洪武通寶 ) with an image of a male child ( or possibly the Emperor ) riding either an ox or water american bison. This charm became very popular as the first Ming Emperor was born as a peasant, which inspired low-born people that they could besides do big things. There were a large number of Chinese numismatic charms cast with the predominate style Zheng De ( 正德通寶 ), despite the government having deprecated cash coins for newspaper money at the fourth dimension ; these charms were much given to children as gifts. [ 141 ] During the Manchu Qing dynasty a capture was cast with the inscription qián lóng tōng bǎo ( 乾隆通寶 ), but was fairly large and had the tōng bǎo ( 通寶 ) part of the cash coin written in a different style, with Manchu characters on its reversion to indicate its station of origin rotated 90 degrees. Some charms were besides made to resemble the briefly cast qí xiáng zhòng bǎo ( 祺祥重寶 ) cash coins. late charms were made to resemble the guāng xù tōng bǎo ( 光緒通寶 ) cast under the Guangxu Emperor but had dīng cái guì shòu ( 丁財貴壽, “ May you acquire wealth, award [ high social station ] and longevity ” ) written on the reverse side of the coin. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ] During the 36th year of the Qianlong time period ( or the gregorian year 1771 ), a number of illusion cash coins with the inscription Qianlong Zhongbao ( 乾隆重寳 ) were cast in celebration of the Emperor ‘s sixtieth birthday. [ 149 ] Because the fete hold on his sixtieth birthday was called Wanshoujie ( 萬壽節, “ the party of ten thousand longevities ” ) these numismatic charms are frequently referred to as wanshou qian ( 萬壽錢, “ Currencies of the Ten Thousand Longevities ” ). [ 149 ]

Ming dynasty cloisonné charms [edit ]

A square-hole coin with a bright blue outer ring and multicoloured enamel interior. A chinese numismatic charm that looks like a cloisonné version of a cash mint. Ming dynasty cloisonné charms ( traditional Chinese : 明代景泰藍花錢 ; Simplified chinese : 明代景泰蓝花钱 ; Pinyin : míng dài jǐng tài lán huā qián ) are extremely scarce Chinese numismatic charms made from cloisonné rather than boldness or bronze. A know cloisonné appeal from the Ming dynasty has the inscription nā mó ē mí tuó fó ( 南無阿彌陀佛, “ I put my reliance in Amitābha Buddha ” ), with diverse colored lotus blossoms between the Hanzi characters. Each color represents something different while the white lotus symbolises the worldly concern ‘s uterus from which everything is born and was the symbol of the Ming dynasty. Another known Ming dynasty earned run average cloisonné appeal has the inscription wàn lì nián zhì ( 萬歷年制, “ Made during the [ reign ] of Wan Li “ ) and the eight Buddhist treasure symbols impressed between the Hanzi characters. These gem symbols are the umbrella, the conch shell, the fire wheel, the endless knot, a pair of pisces, the prize vase, [ c ] the lotus, and the Victory Banner. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] [ 152 ] [ 153 ] Cloisonné charms produced after the Ming dynasty ( particularly those from the Qing dynasty ) frequently have flower patterns. [ 154 ]

chinese money trees [edit ]

A taiwanese money tree from the Han dynasty in the Hong Kong Heritage Cultural Museum. Chinese money trees ( traditional Chinese : 搖錢樹 ; Simplified chinese : 摇钱树 ; Pinyin : yáo qián shù ), or shengxianshu, ( “ immortal ascension trees ” ), [ 155 ] [ 156 ] are tree-like assemblies of charms, with the leaves made from numismatic charm replica of cash coins. These money trees should not be with coin trees which are a by-product of the industry of cash coins, but due to their similarities it is thought by some experts that they may have been related. diverse legends from China dating to the Three Kingdoms period mention a tree that if shaken would cause coins to fall from its branches. Money trees as a charm have been found in Southwest Chinese grave from the Han dynasty, and are believed to have been placed there to help guide the dead to the afterlife and provide them with monetary support. According to one myth, a farmer watered the money tree seed with his fret and watered its sapling with his blood, after which the mature tree provided ageless wealth ; this implies a moral that one can only become affluent through their own labor. literary sources claim that the beginning of the money tree lies with the chinese son for “ copper ” ( 銅, tóng ) which is marked similar to the word for “ the Paulownia corner ” ( 桐, tóng ). The leaves of the Paulownia become jaundiced in fall and take on the appearance of gold or bronze cash coins. Chen Shou ( 陳壽 ) mentions in the Records of the Three Kingdoms that a man named Bing Yuan ( 邴原 ) walked upon a drawstring of cash coins while strolling and, unable to discover the owner, hung it in a nearby corner ; other passersby noticed this string and began hanging coins in the tree with the premise that it was a holy place tree and made wishes for wealth and luck. The earliest money trees, however, date to the Han dynasty in contemporary Sichuan and a Taoist religious order named the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice. Archeoloigsts uncovered money trees equally tall as 1.98 metres ( 6 foot 6 in ), decorated with many strings of cash coins, small bronze dogs, bats, chinese deities, elephants, deer, phoenixes, and dragons, with a bronze human body and a base of pottery. Both the inscriptions and calligraphy found on chinese money trees match those of contemporary chinese cash coins, which typically featured replica of Wu Zhu ( 五銖 ) coins during the Han dynasty while those from the Three Kingdoms period had inscriptions such as “ Liang Zhu ” ( 兩銖 ). [ 157 ] [ 158 ] [ 159 ] [ 160 ] [ 161 ]

By theme [edit ]

chinese astronomy coins [edit ]

Chinese astronomy coins ( traditional Chinese : 天象錢 ; Simplified chinese : 天象钱 ; Pinyin : tiān xiàng qián ) are charms that depict headliner constellations, individual stars, and other astronomic objects from ancient taiwanese astronomy. They may besides contain text from the Classic of Poetry, the Four Divine Creatures and the twenty-eight Mansions, or illustrations from the floor the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl. Astronomy coins normally incorporate guideposts to differentiate the stars and constellations, divided into four cardinal directions. [ 162 ] [ 163 ] [ 164 ]

zodiac charms [edit ]

taiwanese zodiac charms are based on either the twelve animals or the twelve earthly branches of Chinese astrology, based on the sphere of Jupiter, and some zodiac charms feature leading constellations. By the clock time of the leap and Autumn Period, the twelve earthly branches associated with the months and the twelve animals became linked ; during the Han dynasty these besides became linked to a person ‘s year of parturition. [ 165 ] [ 166 ] [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ] Some zodiac charms featured all twelve animals and others might besides include the twelve earthly branches. They frequently feature the fictional character gua ( 挂 ), which indicates that the charm should be worn on a necklace or from the waist. [ 170 ] Modern feng shui charms frequently incorporate the like zodiac-based features. [ 171 ]

Eight Treasures charms [edit ]

An Eight Treasures charm with the dedication 長命富貴金玉滿堂 which could be translated as “ longevity, wealth and respect ”, “ may gold and jade fill your house ( halls ) ” on display at the Museum of Ethnography, Sweden chinese Eight Treasures charms ( traditional Chinese : 八寶錢 ; Simplified chinese : 八宝钱 ; Pinyin : bā bǎo qián ) depict the Eight Treasures, besides known as the “ Eight Precious Things ” and the “ Eight Auspicious Treasures ”, [ 172 ] [ 173 ] [ 174 ] and mention to a subset of a big group of items from ancientness known as the “ Hundred Antiques ” ( 百古 ) which consists of objects utilised in the writing of chinese calligraphy such as painting brushes, ink, writing paper and ink slab, a well as other antiques such as chinese chess, paintings, musical instruments and diverse others. Those most normally depicted on older charms are the ceremony ruyi ( scepter ), coral, pill, rhinoceros horns, sycees, stone chimes, and flaming bone. Eight Treasures charms can alternatively display the eight cute organs of the Buddha ‘s soundbox, the eight auspicious signs, assorted emblems of the eight Immortals from Taoism, or eight convention chinese quality. They much have thematic inscriptions. [ 175 ] [ 176 ]

Liu Haichan and the Three-Legged Toad charms [edit ]

These charms depict Taoist transcendent Liu Haichan, one of the most popular figures on chinese charms, and the Jin Chan ( money frog ). The symbolism of these charms has regional differences, as in some varieties of Chinese the character “ chan ” has a pronunciation very alike to that of “ coin ” ( 錢 qián ). The fabulous Jin Chan lives on the lunar month, and these charms symbolize wishing for that which is “ unachievable ”. This can be interpreted as attracting dependable luck to the charm ‘s holder, or that the attainment of money can lure a person to their fall. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] [ 179 ] [ 180 ]

The Book of Changes and Bagua charms ( Eight Trigram charms ) [edit ]

A taiwanese amulet with the 8 trigrams. taiwanese charms depicting illustrations and subjects from the I Ching ( a.k.a. The Book of Changes ) are used to wish for the cosmic principles associated with divination in ancient China, such as simplicity, variability, and continuity. Bagua charms may besides depict the Bagua ( the Eight Trigrams of Taoist cosmology ). Bagua charms normally feature depictions of trigrams, the Yin Yang symbol, Neolithic jade cong ‘s ( 琮 ), the Ruyi scepter, bats, and cash coins. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] [ 183 ] [ 184 ] [ 185 ] [ 186 ] [ 187 ] Book of Changes and Bagua charms are alternatively known as Yinyang charms ( traditional Chinese : 陰陽錢 ) because the taijitu is frequently found with the eight trigrams. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] This is besides a democratic theme for vietnamese numismatic charms and many vietnamese versions contain the same designs and inscriptions. [ 190 ]

Five poisons talismans [edit ]

A mint amulet that depicts a snake, a spider, a centipede, a frog, and a tiger. Five poisons talismans ( 五毒錢 ) are taiwanese charms decorated with inscriptions and images related to the one-fifth day of the fifth month of the chinese calendar ( 天中节 ), the most inauspicious day according to tradition. This day marked the start of summer which was accompanied with dangerous animals, the spread of pathogens through infection and the allege appearance of malefic spirits. These animals included those known as the five poisons ( 五毒 ) : snakes, scorpions, centipedes, toads, and spiders. These are often depicted on five poisons talismans, or possibly with lizards, the three-legged frog or tiger. The ancient Chinese believed that poison could only be thwarted with poison, and that the amulet would counter the hazardous effects of the animals displayed. An example of a five poisons charm bears the caption “ 五日午时 ” ( “ noon of the fifth day ” ), and the amulets were normally worn on that day. [ 191 ] [ 192 ] [ 193 ] [ 194 ] [ 195 ]

Eight Decalitres of endowment charms [edit ]

The Eight Decalitres of Talent charm is a Qing dynasty era handmade charm with four characters. The rim is painted blue, the leave and mighty characters are painted green, and the circus tent and bottom characters are painted orange. The inscription bā dòu zhī cái ( 八鬥之才 ), which could be translated as “ eight decalitres of endowment ”, is a reference point to a fib in which Cao Zhi struggled with his brother Cao Pi, under the impression that he was oppressed out of envy for his talents. The inscription was devised by the Eastern Jin dynasty poet Xie Lingyun, referring to a saying that endowment was divided into ten pieces and Cao Zhi received eight of the ten. [ 196 ]

Tiger Hour charms [edit ]

Tiger Hour charms are modeled after the Northern Zhou dynasty wǔ xíng dà bù ( 五行大布, “ big Coin of the five Elements ” ) cash coins, [ d ] but tend to have a round hole preferably than a square hole. The inverse of these charms feature the inscription yín shí ( 寅時 ), which is a reference to the shichen of the tiger ( the “ tiger hour ” ), [ further explanation needed ] and have an picture of a tiger and a golden cloud. [ 197 ]

“ cassia and Orchid ” charms [edit ]

“Cassia and Orchid” charms are highly rare Chinese numismatic charms dating to the Manchu Qing dynasty with the inscription guì zi lán sūn ( 桂子蘭孫, “ cassia seeds and orchid grandsons ” ). These charms use the Mandarin Chinese password for Cinnamomum cassia ( 桂, guì ) as a pun, because it sounds like to the Mandarin Chinese word for “ ethical ” ( 貴, guì ) while the word for “ seed ” is besides a homonym for “ son ”. The Mandarin Chinese password for orchid ( 蘭, lán ) refers to zhī lán ( 芝蘭, “ of noble character ” ) which in this context means “ noble grandsons ”. The dedication on the change by reversal side of this charm reads róng huá fù guì ( 榮華富貴, “ high position and great wealth ” ) describing the wish to produce sons and grandsons who would pass the imperial examination and attain a big membership as a mandarin. [ 198 ] [ 199 ]

serviceman Plow, Women Weave charms [edit ]

A square-hole coin charm with four Chinese characters A Men Plow, Women Weave charm with the inscription “ 田蚕万倍 ”. Men Plow, Women Weave charms ( traditional Chinese : 男耕女織錢 ; Simplified chinese : 男耕女织钱 ; Pinyin : nán gēng nǚ zhī qián ) are taiwanese numismatic charms depicting scenes related to the production of rice and sericulture. The charms can feature inscriptions such as tián cán wàn bèi ( 田蠶萬倍, “ may your [ rice ] fields and silkworms increase 10,000 times ” ) on their obverse and may have images of a blemish deer on their overrule. [ 200 ] [ 201 ] [ 202 ] The rigorous division of the sexes, apparent in the policy that “ men plow, women weave ” ( chinese : 男耕女织 ), partitioned male and female histories equally early as the Zhou dynasty, with the Rites of Zhou even stipulating that women be educated specifically in “ women ‘s rites “ ( taiwanese : 陰禮 ; pinyin : yīnlǐ ). [ 203 ]

chinese Boy charms [edit ]

Chinese Boy charms ( traditional Chinese : 童子連錢 ; Simplified chinese : 童子连钱 ; Pinyin : tóng zǐ lián qián ) are taiwanese numismatic charms that depict images of boys in the hope that these charms would cause more boys to be born in the family of the holder. They normally have an eyelet to be carried, hang, or wear, and are more normally found in southern China. The traditional ideal for a chinese family was to have five sons and two daughters, and boys were the prefer sex for filial piety, carrying on the family linage, and qualifying for the imperial examination. The boys depicted on these charms are often in a situation of fear. Some boy charms contain inscriptions like tóng zǐ lián qián ( 童子連錢 ) which connect male offspring to monetary wealth. Boy statuettes belonging to boy charms can besides be found on top of open-work charms. Some son charms contain images of lotus seeds because the chinese word for lotus sounds exchangeable to “ continuous ”, and wishes for continuity through the male occupation. [ 204 ] [ 205 ] [ 206 ] [ 207 ]

Charms with musicians, dancers, and acrobats [edit ]

chinese charms with “ peasant ” musicians, dancers, and acrobats ( traditional Chinese : 胡人樂舞雜伎錢 ; Simplified chinese : 胡人乐舞杂伎钱 ; Pinyin : hú rén yuè wǔ zá jì qián ) appeared during either the Khitan Liao or the Chinese Song dynasty. These charms broadly depict four individuals of which one is doing an acrobatic stunt ( such as a handstand ) while the others are playing diverse melodious instruments : a four-string instrument which might possibly be a ruan, a flute, and a wooden fish. Although most numismatic catalogs refer to these charms as depicting “ barbarians ” or huren ( 胡人, literally “ bearded people ” ) the characters depicted on these charms have no beards. The invert side of these charms depict four children or babies playing and enjoying themselves, which is a common feature for Liao dynasty charms ; above these babies is a person resembling a baby that appears to ride on something. [ 208 ] [ 209 ] [ 210 ] [ 211 ]

chinese treasure bowl charms [edit ]

Chinese treasure bowl charms are chinese numismatic charms that feature references to the fabulous “ treasure bowl ” ( 聚寶盆 ) which would normally grant unending wealth to those who hold it but may besides be responsible for great sorrow. These charms are pendants with an effigy of the treasure bowl filled with respective objects from the eight treasures on one side and the dedication píng ān jí qìng ( 平安吉慶, “ peace and Happiness ” ) on the reverse. The loop of the charm is the imprint of a dragon ; the bowed stringed instrument would be placed between the legs and the tail of the dragon, while the dragon ‘s read/write head looks up from the bottom of the charm. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] Another type of chinese “ treasure bowl ” charm has the obverse inscription Zhaocai Jinbao ( 招財進寳 ), these charms have dragon-shaped swivel. [ 214 ]

confucian charms [edit ]

confucian charms are taiwanese numismatic charms that depict the traditions, rituals, and moral code of Confucianism, such as filial piety and “ righteousness ”. [ 215 ] [ 216 ] [ 217 ] [ 218 ] Examples of confucian charms would include a appeal that depicts Shenzi carrying firewood on a shoulder pole, open-work charms depicting stories from “ The twenty-four Examples of Filial Piety ” ( 二十四孝 ), [ 219 ] [ 220 ] [ 221 ] the “ five relationships ” ( 五倫 ), Meng Zong kneeling beside bamboo, Dong Yong ( a Han dynasty era man ) working a hoe, Wang Xiang with a fishingpole. confucian inscriptions include fù cí zǐ xiào ( 父慈子孝, “ the founder is kind and the son is filial ” ) read clockwise, yí chū fèi fǔ ( 義出肺腑, “ righteousness comes from the penetrate of one ‘s heart ” ), zhōng jūn xiào qīn ( 忠君孝親, “ be loyal to the sovereign and honor one ‘s parents ” ), huā è shuāng huī ( 花萼雙輝, “ petals and sepals both fall ” ), and jìng xiōng ài dì ( 敬兄愛第, “ reverence older brothers and love younger brothers ” ). [ 222 ] [ 223 ] [ 224 ] [ 225 ]

taoist charms [edit ]

Taoist charms ( traditional Chinese : 道教品壓生錢 ; Simplified chinese : 道教品压生钱 ; Pinyin : dào jiào pǐn yā shēng qián ) are chinese numismatic charms that contain inscriptions and images related to Taoism. Since ancient times, the Chinese had attributed charming powers and influence to Hanzi characters. They believed that certain characters could impact spirits, which were in plow believed to be creditworthy for good and ill luck. The Huainanzi report spirits as horrified at being commanded by the charming powers of the Hanzi characters used for amulets and charms. many early on Han dynasty talismans were worn as pendants containing inscriptions requesting that people who were deified in the Taoist religion to lend them auspices. Some taoist charms contain inscriptions based on Taoist “ magic trick spell ” ( chinese : 符文, besides known as Taoist magic script characters, Taoist magic figures, Taoist magic formula, Taoist secret talismanic writing, and Talismanic characters ) which is a unavowed writing style regarded as region of Fulu. Its techniques are passed from Taoist priests to their students and disagree between Taoist sects, with a privacy that led many people to believe that they would have more effect in controlling the will of the spirits. As the majority of these charms asked Leigong ( the Taoist God of Thunder ) to kill the evil spirits or bogies, these numismatic charms are frequently called “ Lei Ting ” charms ( 雷霆錢 ) or “ Lei Ting curse ” charms. As imperial decrees had absolute authority, this reinforced the popular myth that Hanzi characters were somehow charming, and inspired chinese talismans to take the forms of imperial decrees. many taoist talismans read as if by a high-rank official commanding the malefic spirits and bogies with inscriptions such as “ let it [ the command ] be executed adenine fast as Lü Ling ”, [ e ] “ cursorily, promptly, this is an holy order ”, and “ [ pay ] respect [ to ] this command ”. [ 226 ] Taoist talismans can contain either square holes or round ones. many Taoist amulets and charms contain images of Liu Haichan, Zhenwu, the Bagua, yin-yang symbols, constellations, Laozi, swords, bats, and immortals. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] [ 230 ] [ 231 ] [ 232 ] During the Song dynasty, a phone number of Taoist charms depicting the “ Quest for Longevity ” were cast. These check images of an immortal, infuriate burner, grus, and a tortoise on the obverse and Taoist “ charming write ” on the rearward. taoist charms containing the quest for immortality are a coarse theme and reproductions of this charm were normally made after the Song period. [ 233 ] Some Taoist charms from the Qing dynasty incorporate images of Lü Dongbin with the dedication fú yòu dà dì ( 孚佑大帝, “ Great Emperor of Trustworthy Protection ” ). This charm notably contains a round hole. [ 234 ] [ 235 ] A taoist charm from either the Jin or Yuan dynasty without any written text shows what is normally believed to be either a “ boy under a pine corner ” ( 松下童子 ) or a “ male child worshipping an immortal ” ( 童子拜仙人 ), but an alternate hypothesis is that this charm depicts a suffer between Laozi and Zhang Daoling. This is based on the fact that the design purportedly representing Zhang Daoling is carrying a cane which in Mandarin Chinese is a homophone for “ Zhang ”. On the reverse side of the capture are the twelve Chinese zodiacs, each in a set surrounded by what is referred to as “ auspicious cloud ” which total eight. [ 236 ]

buddhist charms and temple coins [edit ]

ē mí tuó fó (阿彌陀佛) referring to the Amitābha Buddha in A Buddhist numismatic spell with the dedication ( 阿彌陀佛 ) referring to the Amitābha Buddha in Delft, the Netherlands. buddhist charms ( traditional Chinese : 佛教品壓勝錢 ; Simplified chinese : 佛教品压胜钱 ; Pinyin : fó jiào pǐn yā shēng qián ) are chinese numismatic charms that display Buddhist symbols of by and large Mahayana Buddhism. These charms can have inscriptions in both Chinese and Sanskrit ( while those with Sanskrit inscriptions did not appear until the Ming dynasty ), [ 237 ] [ 238 ] these charms by and large contain blessings from the Amitābha Buddha such as coins with the inscription ē mí tuó fó ( 阿彌陀佛 ). temple coins frequently had inscriptions calling for compassion and request for the Buddha to protect the holder of the coin. Most synagogue coins are little. Some of them contain mantras from the Heart Sūtra. Some buddhist charms are pendants dedicated to the Bodhisattva Guanyin. Common symbols are the lotus which is associated with the Buddha, and the banana which is associated with Vanavasa. Less normally, some Buddhist charms besides contain taoist symbolism including Taoist “ charming write ” script. There are Buddhist charms based on the Ming dynasty era hóng wǔ tōng bǎo ( 洪武通寶 ) but larger .

japanese Buddhist charms in China [edit ]

japanese Buddhist monks brought bombastic numbers of japanese numismatic charms to China. frequently encountered is the Buddhist qiě kōng cáng qì ( 且空藏棄 ) which was cast in Japan from 1736 to 1740 during the Tokugawa dictatorship, and dedicated to the Ākāśagarbha Bodhisattva based on one of the front-runner mantras of Kūkai. Ākāśagarbha is one of the eight immortals who attempts to free people from the cycle of reincarnation with compassion. Another japanese Buddhist charm frequently found in China has the inscription nā mó ē mí tuó fó ( 南無阿彌陀佛, “ I put my believe in [ the ] Amitābha Buddha ” ). [ 239 ] [ 240 ] [ 241 ]

chinese talismans with sword symbolism [edit ]

Swords are a common theme on chinese numismatic charms, and coins were often assembled into ensiform talismans. Most chinese numismatic charms that feature swords much show a individual sword. According to chinese legends, the first swords in China appeared under the reign of the legendary Yellow Emperor. During the leap and Autumn Period, the impression developed that swords could be used against evil spirits and demons. Under the Liu Song dynasty swords became a coarse musical instrument in religious rituals, most particularly in Taoist rituals ; according to the Daoist Rituals of the Mystery Cavern and Numinous Treasure ( 洞玄靈寶道學科儀 ) it was necessity for students of taoism to be able to forge swords which had the capability to dispel demonic entities. many Taoist sects formed during this period believed that swords could defeat demons and besides contained medical properties. Under the Sui and Tang dynasties ritualistic swords constructed of peach wood started to appear. Around this clock time, chinese amulets with sword themes began to be produced ; often these amulets resembled taiwanese cash coins but had crossed swords decorated with ribbons or fillets on them, as the ancient Chinese believed that these items enhanced the powers of the item they were tied to. chinese swords were normally engraved with imagination representing the Big Dipper, which was believed to have unlimited charming power, and this besides became common for charms that featured swords. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] [ 244 ] The trope of two swords on chinese amulets stems from a legend where Taoist leader Zhang Daoling saw Laozi appear to him on a mountain in contemporary Sichuan and gave him two swords. alternatively, two swords can besides represent two dragons from a legend where a man named Lei Huan ( 雷煥 ) received two swords and gave one to his son Lei Hua ( 雷華 ), who lost it in a river ; a servant tasked with retrieving it witnessed two coiled and entwined chinese dragons. [ 245 ] [ 246 ] [ 247 ] [ 248 ] Another popular way swords are integrated in Chinese numismatic talismans is by stringing actual or replica cash coins into a sword-shape. [ 249 ] [ 250 ] In feng shui, these coin-swords are often hang to frighten away demons and evil spirits. [ 249 ] Chinese talismans of swordsmen normally depict one of the Taoist immortals Zhong Kui or Lu Dongbin. Swordsmen besides appear on zodiac charms, Bagua charms, elephant chess pieces, lock charms, and other Chinese numismatic charms. Another person who appears on taiwanese amulets is Zhenwu, who is regarded as the arrant warrior. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] [ 253 ] [ 254 ] [ 255 ] A coarse inscription on chinese sword charms is qū xié jiàng fú ( 驅邪降福, “ Expel evil and send depressed well fortune [ happiness ] ” ), but most normally these charms feature inscriptions or “ imperial orders ” / ” edicts ” ( 敕令, chì lìng ) commanding demons and evil spirits to be expelled. sometimes an image of a calamus is used, as the leaves of this plant resemble a sword. [ 256 ] [ 257 ] [ 258 ] [ 259 ] [ 260 ]

By other purpose [edit ]

sawhorse coins [edit ]

Two examples of chinese cavalry coins sawhorse coins ( traditional Chinese : 馬錢 ; Pinyin : mǎ qián ) were a type of chinese charm that originated in the Song dynasty. Most horse coins tend to be round, three centimeters in diameter, with a round or straight hole. The horses featured on these coins are depicted in respective positions. Their historic consumption is unknown, though it is speculated that they were used as game display panel pieces or gambling counters. horse coins were most often manufactured from copper or bronze, though there are a few attested cases of manufacture from animal cornet or ivory. The cavalry coins produced during the Song dynasty are considered to be of the best quality and craft and tend to be made from better metal than those which followed. [ 261 ] horse coins much depicted celebrated horses from chinese history, while commemorative horse coins would besides feature riders. An case is the mint “ General Yue Yi of the State of Yan “ which commemorates a Yan try to conquer the city of Jimo. [ 262 ]

Xiangqi pieces [edit ]

The game of xiangqi ( a.k.a. chinese chess ) was in the first place played with either metallic or porcelain pieces, and these were frequently collected and studied by those with an matter to in chinese cash coins, [ 263 ] [ 264 ] charms and horse coins. These coins are regarded as a type of chinese charm and are divided into the surveil categories : [ 265 ] [ 266 ] [ 267 ] [ 268 ]

  • Elephants (象)
  • Soldiers (卒)
  • Generals (将)
  • Horses (马)
  • Chariots (車)
  • Guards (士)
  • Canons (炮)
  • Palaces (宫)
  • Rivers (河)

The earliest known Xiangqi pieces date to the Chongning era ( 1102–1106 ) of the Song dynasty and were unearthed in the state of Jiangxi in 1984. Xianqi pieces were besides found along the Silk Road in provinces like Xinjiang and were besides used by the Tanguts of the westerly Xia dynasty. [ 269 ] [ 270 ] [ 271 ]
During the Song dynasty, Chinese numismatic charms were cast that describe people playing the sport of cuju, a form of football. These charms display four images of football players in respective positions around the squarely trap in the middle of the mint. The reverse side of the mint depicts a dragon and a phoenix, which are the traditional symbols representing men and women, possibly indicating the unisex nature of the sport. [ 272 ] [ 273 ] [ further explanation needed ]

chinese “ World of Brightness ” coins [edit ]

During the late Qing dynasty, cast neologism was lento replaced by machine-struck neologism. At the lapp time, machine-struck charms with the dedication guāng míng shì jiè ( 光明世界, “ World of Brightness ” ) started appearing that looked very exchangeable to the contemporary milled guāng xù tōng bǎo ( 光緒通寶 ) cash coins. There are three variations of the “ World of Brightness ” coin : the most coarse one contains the same Manchu characters on the reversion as the contemporary guāng xù tōng bǎo cash coins, indicating that this mint was produced by the mint of Guangzhou. Another interpretation has the same dedication written on the reverse side of the mint, while a third version has nine stars on the change by reversal adjutant of the coin. modern numismatists have n’t determined the mean, function, or origin of these charms. One hypotheses proposes that these coins were a form of hell money because it is thought that “ World of Brightness ” in this context would be a euphemism for “ universe of darkness ”, which is how the taiwanese consult to death. Another hypotheses suggests that these coins were gambling tokens. A third gear proposes that these coins were used by the Heaven and Earth Society due to the fact that the Hanzi quality míng ( 明 ) is a component of the name of the Ming dynasty ( 明朝 ), which meant that the inscription guāng míng ( 光明 ) could be read as “ the aura of the Ming ”. [ 274 ]

Paizi designs featured on Chinese numismatic charms [edit ]

In November 2018, Dr. Helen Wang of the british Museum posted an article on the web site Chinese money matters where she noted that the british Museum was in possession of chinese talismans that featured designs based on paizi ( 牌子 ). According to Wang, the taiwanese writer Dr. Alex Chengyu Fang [ zh ] mentions these charms as “ Hanging plaques and charms of strange shapes ” ( 掛牌與異形錢 ) in his 2008 book Chinese Charms: Art, Religion and Folk Belief ( 中國花錢與傳統文化 ), and besides notes that some of these pieces depict lingpai ( 令牌 ). Wang besides mentions that the American Gary Ashkenazy noted examples of “ chandelier charms ” ( 挂牌 ) with these designs on his Primaltrek web site. Based on later comments made by Andrew West ( @ BabelStone ) Tangut characters appeared on paizi produced in the western Xia and comments by Fang made on Twitter were noted by Wang that paizi inspired designs not only appeared on orthogonal talismans but besides on cash coin-shaped charms where the paizi is featured directly above the square center fix, and much feature taiwanese zodiac in their designs. The british Museum is besides in monomania of chinese talismans with these designs which they acquired from the Tamba Collection ( which was originally in the hands of Kutsuki Masatsuna, 1750–1802 ). [ 275 ] [ 276 ]

chinese cash coins with charm features [edit ]

many government-issued cash coins and other currencies such as Spade and Knife money that did not have any extra charm-like features were considered to have “ charm-like qualities ” and were treated as charms by some people. [ 277 ] [ 278 ] [ 279 ] The Wang Mang era knife coin, with a noun phrase rate of 5,000 cash coins, was often seen as a spell by the people because the character 千 ( for 1,000 ) is very alike to the character 子 which means “ son ”. The dedication of the knife mint could be read as “ worth five sons ”. A coin from Shu Han with the nominal value of 100 Wu Zhu cash coins featured a pisces on the reverse of the dedication which symbolises “ abundance ” and “ perseverance ” in chinese culture. Another Shu Han earned run average mint contained the inscription tai ping bai qian which was taken as an omen of peace and this mint is frequently considered to be a peace charm. During the Jin dynasty a coin was issued with the inscription fēng huò ( 豐貨 ) which could be translated as “ ( the ) coin of abundance ” ; possessing it was believed to be economically beneficial, and it was popularly known as the “ cash of riches ”. [ 280 ] [ 281 ] During the Tang dynasty period, images of clouds, crescents, and stars were often added on coins, which the Chinese continued to use in subsequent dynasties. During the Jurchen Jin dynasty coins were cast with rearward inscriptions that featured characters from the twelve earthly branches and ten heavenly stems. During the Ming dynasty stars were sometimes used decoratively on some official government-produced cash coins. Under the Manchu Qing dynasty yōng zhèng tōng bǎo ( 雍正通寶 ) cash coins cast by the Lanzhou Mint were considered to be charms or amulets capable of warding against evil spirits and demons because the Manchu son “ gung ” looked like to the broadsword used by the Chinese God of war, Emperor Guan. [ 282 ] [ 283 ] The commemorative kāng xī tōng bǎo ( 康熙通寶 ) vomit for the Kangxi Emperor ‘s sixtieth birthday in 1713 was believed to have “ the powers of a charm ” immediately when it entered circulation. It contains a slightly different interpretation of the Hanzi symbol “ 熙 ” at the bottom of the cash, which lacked the upright tune coarse at the left depart of the character ; the part of this symbol which was normally inscribed as “ 臣 ” has the middle part written as a “ 口 ” rather. notably, the amphetamine left area of the symbol “ 通 ” contains a one scatter as opposed to the usual two dots used during this earned run average. [ relevance questioned ] Several myths were attributed to this coin over the stick to 300 years ; one of these myths was that the coin was cast from aureate statues of the 18 disciples of the Buddha, which earned this coin the nicknames “ the Lohan coin ” and “ Arhat money ”. It was given to children as yā suì qián ( 壓歲錢 ) during chinese new class, some women wore it as an employment band, and in rural Shanxi young men wore this like aureate tooth. The mint was made from a copper debase but it was not uncommon for people to enhance the coin with gold leaf. [ 284 ] [ 285 ] [ 286 ]

taiwanese star topology charms [edit ]

Chinese star charms refers to Song dynasty earned run average dà guān tōng bǎo ( 大觀通寶 ) cash coins that depict star constellations on the reversion english of the coin. These coins are much considered to be among the most beautiful chinese cash coins because of their “ slender gold ” script ( 瘦金書 ) which was written by Emperor Huizong. This coin was used to make ace charms because the son guān means star gaze and is a compound word for astronomy and astrology. [ 287 ]

chinese poem coins [edit ]

Chinese poem coins ( traditional Chinese : 詩錢 ; Simplified chinese : 诗钱 ; Pinyin : shī qián, alternatively 二十錢局名 ) are taiwanese cash coins cast under the Kangxi Emperor, [ 288 ] [ 289 ] a Manchu Emperor known for his poetry who wrote the study Illustrations of Plowing and Weaving ( 耕織圖 ) in 1696. The coins produced under the Kangxi Emperor all had the obverse inscription Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo ( 康熙通寶 ) and had the Manchu character ᠪᠣᠣ ( Boo, construct ) on the left side of the square hole and the mention of the mint on the right. As the mention Kangxi was composed of the characters meaning “ health ” ( 康 ) and “ golden ” ( 熙 ) [ 290 ] [ 291 ] [ 292 ] [ 293 ] the Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo cash coins were viewed as having auspicious properties. As the cash coins were produced at twenty-three mints, some people placed these coins together to form poems in attachment to the rules of Classical Chinese poetry. These coins were always placed together to form the follow poem : [ 294 ]

Traditional Chinese Pinyin
同福臨東江 tóng fú lín dōng jiāng
宣原蘇薊昌 xuān yuán sū jì chāng
南寧河廣浙 nán níng hé guǎng zhè
台桂陝雲漳 tái guì shǎn yún zhāng

The string “ appeal ” of twenty dollar bill coins, besides known as “ place coins ” ( 套子錢 ), was seen as inconvenient to carry. Charms were therefore produced that had ten of the twenty dollar bill mint marks on each side of the mint. These charms were besides distinguished from the actual cash coins by having round holes. They were sometimes painted red, as a golden color, and sometimes had inscriptions wishing for good fortunes such as :

Traditional Chinese Translation
金玉滿堂 “may gold and jade fill your halls”
大位高升 “may you be promoted to a high position”
五子登科 “may your five sons achieve great success in the imperial examinations”
福祿壽喜 “good fortune, emolument [official salary], longevity, and happiness”
吉祥如意 “may your good fortune be according to your wishes”

Kāng Xī Tōng Bǎo cash coins produced at the Ministry of Revenue and the Ministry of Public Works in the capital city of Beijing are excluded from these poems. [ 295 ] [ 296 ]

chinese Numismatic Charms Museum [edit ]

On 1 February 2015, a chinese Numismatic Charms Museum ( traditional Chinese : 中國古代民俗錢幣博物館 ; Simplified chinese : 中国古代民俗钱币博物馆 ; Pinyin : zhōng guó gǔ dài mín sú qián bì bó wù guǎn ) was opened in the Hainanese city of Haikuo. This museum is located in a build that is a replica of the Szechuan Kanting Civilian Commercial Bank in Movie Town Haikou, and has exhibition areas that cover around 530 square metres ( 5,700 sq foot ). The solicitation of the museum contains both taiwanese coins and paper money and has more than two thousand chinese numismatic charms dating from the Han dynasty to the Republic of China. [ 297 ] [ 298 ]

Charms from cultural minorities [edit ]

Liao dynasty charms [edit ]

Liao dynasty charms are chinese numismatic charms produced during the Khitan Liao dynasty that are written in Khitan script and, unlike Liao dynasty coins, were read counter-clockwise. Because Khitan script has n’t been wholly deciphered, these rare charms are n’t fully understood by advanced experts. [ 299 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] Some Liao dynasty earned run average charms had no inscriptions at all, and are not well understood as the Khitan people may have interpreted certain symbols differently from the Chinese. One of the most well-known Liao dynasty charms is the “ Mother of Nine Sons ” charm, which bears no inscription. It depicts three groups of three people which are believed to be the sons of the woman riding a dragon on the other side ; the three groups are believed to symbolise the three levels of the imperial examination system. A more recent guess proposes that the person riding the dragon is the chicken Emperor returning to the heavens and that the people represent the Nine Provinces ( 九州 ). [ 302 ] [ 303 ] [ 304 ] [ 305 ]

Charms of the Sui people [edit ]

In 2004, a Sui coin was discovered dating to the Northern Song dynasty between 1008 and 1016, with the inscription dà zhōng xiáng fú ( 大中祥符 ) on one side and the give voice “ wealth ” written in Sui script on the early. This is the alone know coin produced by the Sui people and established their differ numismatic custom from the Han Chinese. several numismatic charms have been attributed to the Sui people from the Sandu Shui Autonomous County, such as a charm depicting male and female dragons ( being transformed from fish ) with the twelve Chinese zodiac and the twelve earthly branches written in Sui script on the inverse. Unlike chinese charms, Sui charms differentiate read male genitalia on the male draco, which seems to be a common sport for male dragons on numismatic charms of neighboring cultural groups. [ 306 ] [ 307 ] [ 308 ]

Implied and hide meanings [edit ]

The imply and obscure meanings of Chinese numismatic talismans ( traditional Chinese : 諧音寓意 ; Simplified chinese : 谐音寓意 ; Pinyin : xié yīn yù yì ) refers to the non-obvious meanings ascribed to them. These can take many forms which can involve hide symbolism in their inscriptions angstrom well as ocular pun. [ 309 ] One fundamental dispute between cash coins and numismatic charms is that the majority of cash coins have four fictional character inscriptions that normally bear the reign names, indicating the menstruation of production and their nominal respect. While most chinese numismatic charms besides have four character inscriptions, these do not serve for identification but contain wishes and desires such as auspicious inscriptions hoping that good luck or health will arrive to the carrier, or that they ‘ll succeed in the business global or do well on the imperial examination. [ 310 ] early inscriptions, however, wish for evil and dark spirits or ghosts to go away, or for misfortune to be averted. Unlike cash coins, Chinese numismatic charms depict a big range of images that are intended to enhance the symbolism of the charm. Charms may besides contain ocular and talk puns, the latter of which is facilitated by the nature of chinese languages in which many written Hanzi characters have the same pronunciation. [ fluorine ] The chinese talismans produced under the reign of the Ming and Manchu Qing dynasties frequently used ocular and talk puns. These implied or obscure meanings are referred in Mandarin Chinese as jí xiáng tú àn ( 吉祥圖案, “ lucky pictures ” or a rebus ). It is not rare for taiwanese talismans to depict animals, plants, and early things as a alternate for words due to their similarities in pronunciation despite there being no other relationship between them or what is expressed with the imagination. [ 311 ] [ 312 ] [ 313 ] [ 314 ] [ 315 ] [ 316 ]

list of symbols that appear on Chinese numismatic charms and their imply meanings [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

References [edit ]

further read [edit ]

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