By Heinz Tschachler … ..
When in the early 1990s the United States was getting ready to commemorate the quincentennial of Christopher Columbus foremost landing on the Caribbean island of Guanahani, a bill was proposed that would eliminate the cent and the half-dollar and create a newfangled small-dollar coin bearing a portrayal of the inventor ( Wilcox, 1006-7 ) .
nothing ever came of this, though in November 1991 the United States Mint announced its plan for a “ 500 Years of Discovery Medal ” for the U.S. Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission. A class late, the Mint released a half-dollar commemorative coin. Designed by T. James Ferrell, the coin ’ sulfur obverse shows Columbus at landfall ; in the background is the Santa Maria and a smaller transport with the gang disembark. The mint ’ second reverse shows Columbus ’ flotilla of three ships.
The half-dollar is separate of a specify of three commemorative coins–a silver dollar designed by John Mercanti, which shows, on the obverse, a standing Columbus with a banner in his right hand and a scroll in his leave ; on the inverse, designed by Thomas D. Rogers, Sr., is a jar juxtaposition of the Santa Maria and the Space Shuttle Discovery ; a half eagle ( a $ 5 gold coin ) bears a Columbus profile break against the eastern shoreline of the Western hemisphere on the obverse ( created by T. James Ferrell ) and a chart with a circumnavigate rose overlapping the western Old World with the go steady 1492, and Columbus ’ coat of arms on the inverse ( the work of Thomas D. Rogers, Sr. ) ( Vermeule, 206 ) .
Emitting the coins at best was a halfhearted attempt, done in order not to fall behind international drill ( Spain, Portugal, and Italy –as well as the Bahamas, Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Cuba, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and other latin american countries already had produced their commemoratives [ 1 ] ) .
Worse, sales figures were more than humble : of the six million pieces minted, only some 600,000 were sold to the populace. Most of the coins were subsequently melted down. The economic failure of the coin shows that in the United States there was not then a lot to write home about Columbus ’ numismatic presence, and the 1992 commemorative did fiddling to improve the position [ 2 ] .
The quincentennial of Columbus ’ death, in 2005, did not occasion any numismatic activity on the part of the Mint, and the six-hundredth anniversary of Columbus ’ birth, presumably in 1451, seems excessively far in the future to make any predictions .
You won ’ metric ton find it in the public literature surrounding the quincentennial, but Columbus had been a popular motif on coins, currency, and medals ( about 270 all in all ) in the nineteenth century. And beginning with Independence, he became a cultural investment throughout the raw state, an ideal establish trope visible in the arts, literature and, lest one forgets, rate and consequence names, from the Columbia River to the World’s Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1892 .
How, then, to explain the flag pastime in the big inventor ?
In the remainder of this essay, I will probe the be two reasons for Columbus ’ decline in the american nation ’ sulfur corporate memory .
One, there is not a unmarried portrait of Columbus that was taken from biography. Portraits that generally passed for those of the finder were either pictures of his son Don Diego Columbus or strictly fantasy products. furthermore, by the middle of the nineteenth century, the use of photograph became standard for illustrations in print media and bill and coin production. Increasingly, designers would think doubly about using strictly complex number Columbus portraits–especially on new notes. As of the 1920s, there was no longer a place on american currentness for the inventor, whose portrayal had appeared together with George Washington’s on a one-dollar note of 1869 .
Two, the trouble of an authentic Columbus portrait was, however, a minor consequence in comparison with larger social and cultural trends. Columbus was a genoese in the service of the spanish crown. By the end of the nineteenth century, this fact was being held against the inventor. potent nativist sentiments had emerged against newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe, and concomitantly, Columbus ’ condition as an crucial human body of social cohesiveness was challenged .
And opposition to Columbus Day, which began in businesslike with the quincentennial of 1892, has not gone aside. As of the concluding years of the twentieth hundred, the opposition, initially led by Native Americans and late expanded upon by left-leaning activists, has decried the actions taken, both by Columbus and other Europeans, against autochthonal populations in the Americas. This opposition reached a new peak in June 2020, when protesters damaged Columbus statues in Richmond, Virginia ; Boston, Massachusetts ; and St. Paul, Minnesota .
The Problem of an Authentic Portrait
American generator Washington Irving, who in 1828 published an authoritative Columbus biography that secured the explorer ’ sulfur place in narratives of America ’ s historic build up, had found to his humiliate that the portraits that generally passed for those of Columbus were actually portraits of Columbus ’ son Don Diego. [ 3 ] .
Irving then settled, half-heartedly, for a portrayal painted by one Antonio Moro. The portrayal, from an old bulk of italian engravings, was favored by Irving ’ sulfur contacts in Spain, which included Martín Fernández de Navarrete, the writer of a collection of Columbus-related documents called Colección de los viajes yttrium descubrimientos, and the Duke of Veragua. Irving included the paint in the condensation published by Murray of London in 1830 [ 4 ] .
Irving ’ mho future finding, in 1829, was a late 16th-century portrayal by one Aliprando Caprioli ; he had it copied but was equally unconvinced about the “ authenticity of the likeness ” [ 5 ] .
The problem of an accurate likeness concerned Irving for the future twenty-some years .
Writing to William Cullen Bryant in December of 1851, he discusses more than half a twelve alleged Columbus portraits, though he adds a note of resignation :
“ I know of no portrayal extant which is positively known to be authentic. ”
He finally settled for a portrayal by the spanish artist Juan de Borgoña, knowing broad well that this likeness, excessively, might have been “ strictly fanciful ” [ 6 ] .
Depictions of Columbus on 19th-century currency notes likewise were fantasy products, including those based on a 16th-century portrait by Francesco Mazzola Parmigianino or on a 17th-century paint by Mariano Maella [ 7 ] .
At the meter, use of photograph had become standard for bill production ( President Lincoln’s portrayal, based on Christopher S. German’s photograph, in an scratch by Charles Burt, had appeared on $10 Demand notes in 1861 ) [ 8 ], so why photographic print “ strictly fanciful ” Columbus portraits on new notes ?
In the long run, Columbus gradually disappeared from currency notes .
however, as the quatercentennial of 1892 was approaching, an early 16th-century paint of a beardless man of learning, attributed to Lorenzo Lotto, was accorded something like official support, possibly because it somehow matches the description by Columbus ’ moment son and biographer Fernando [ 9 ]. It was thought that Lotto ’ s portrayal of 1512, which had served for a spanish decoration, was to be the choice for the american half dollar .
however neither this compare ( which shows a cleanshaven man with an about monk-like appearance who holds, in one hand, a conically projected map of Brazil ) nor a chubby one by Sebastiano del Piombo was taken from liveliness. alternatively, they are thought to be copied after the cartoon of an stranger artist working in Rome about 1500. A call by the Chicago businessman C. F. Gunther that the Antonio Moro paint in his monomania was the only actual portrait of Columbus in being was ignored .
The dilemma was resolved when the United States Mint forwarded an etch by F. Focillon, which in turn was based on a paint by Bartolomeo Suardi ( aka Bramantino ), in the possession of a Dr. di Orchi of Como, and hang in the Naval Museum, Madrid [ 10 ] .
besides in 1892, a Henri-Emile Lefort published an engrave titled Christophorus Columbus ( New York : M. Knoedler, 1892 ). The engrave, presumed to be based on an anonymous portrayal in the Naval Museum at Madrid ( it does look alike to the Focillon etch ), was belated used as the frontispiece for the Complete Works version of Irving ’ s A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus [ 11 ] .
Until the Civil War, depictions of Columbus on banknotes were largely based on Parmigianino ’ s painting .
One reason is that once a sketch was engraved, it was offered to as many banks as possible in ordain to make up for the original spending .
Gene Hessler, in “ Capturing the True Columbus ”, has identified bills from 10 states that used the Parmigianino portrait as a mannequin :
- The Ansonia Bank, Seymour, CT ($5, H-CT-5-G8 and G8a, 1862)
- The Bank of America ($5, not listed in Haxby) and the Tolland County Bank, Tolland, CT ($10, H-CT-430-G64, 1840s)
- Bank of Augusta, Augusta, GA ($1, H-GA-30-G26, mid-1840s to early ’50s) and Exchange Bank, Brunswick, GA ($10, H-GA-95-G8, 1840s)
- New Orleans Canal & Banking Company, New Orleans, LA ($10, H-LA-105-G22a, late 1840s)
- Kenduskeag Bank, Bangor, ME ($5, H-ME-85-G36, late 1840s)
- Cochituate Bank, Boston, MA ($100, H-MA-130-G16, 1849 to early 1850s); Suffolk Bank, Boston, MA ($5, H-MA-370-G100 and G100b, late 1850s 1860s)
- Piscataqua Exchange Bank, Portsmouth, NH ($5, H-NH-285-G8, 1840s to ’60s)
- Bank of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ ($1, H-NJ-345-G2a and G20a-d, early 1850s, and see below); Somerset County Bank, Somerville, NJ ($50, H-NJ-500-G14 and G14c, 1848-1860s); and State Bank of Elizabeth, Elizabeth, NJ ($5, H-NJ-120-G40 and G40b, 1850s-1860s)
- Bank of Owego, Owego, New York ($1, H-NY-2155-G22 and G22a-d, late 1840s-’60s, and see below); Henry Keep’s Bank, Watertown, NY ($1, H-2860-G2 and G2a, 1840s); Commercial Bank of Troy, Troy, NY ($50, H-NY-2690-G28 and G28a-b, 1840s-1860s)
- Lehigh County Bank, Allentown, PA ($5, H-PA-20-G8, early 1840s) and The Miners Bank of Pottsville, Pottsville, PA ($20, H-PA-575-G32, 1840s-1850s, and see below)
- Mechanics Bank, Providence, RI ($20, H RI-340-G36, 1850s); New England Commercial Bank, Newport, RI ($2, H-RI-155-G40, 1850s); and National Bank, Providence, RI ($10, H-RI-360-G58 G58a-b, 1860s)
small engravings of the alleged “ Muñoz portrait “ –so-named after its first appearance as the frontispiece in Juan Bautista Muñoz’ Historia del Nuevo-Mundo ( Madrid, 1793 ) –were besides used on a number of disused savings bank notes, including :
- The Real Estate Bank of the State of Arkansas, Columbia, AR ($10, H-AR-5-G32)
- The Commercial Bank of Florida, Apalachicola, FL ($2, H-FL-5-G4, 1830s)
- The Augusta Insurance & Banking Company, Augusta, GA ($100, H GA-35-G50, ca. 1828-’40s) and The Merchants and Planters Bank, Augusta, GA ($100, H GA-65-G52)
- The New Jersey Manufacturing & Banking Company, Hoboken, NJ (H-NJ-210: $1, G4 and G4a-b; $3, G26; $5, G38 and G38a; $10, G42 and G42a; $20, G44a and G46; $50, G50; $100, G54, all from the 1820s; the image is reversed on the $20, $50, and $100 notes)
- The Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company, Brandon, MS ($5, H-MS25-G8 and G8a-b, late 1830s) [ 12 ]
The portrayal, which Mariano Maella credibly painted about a century after Columbus ’ death, shows a bearded serviceman in armor and a trump of the seventeenth hundred. Bearing no resemblance to descriptions of Columbus ’ person, it is just ampere fanciful as others of its kind [ 13 ] .
A great many currency notes bearing Columbus ’ portrait came from banks that bore Columbus in their names. early examples are $ 5 notes issued by the Columbiana Bank of New Lisbon, New Lisbon, Ohio, in the 1830s. The central vignette, which depicts an agrarian scene, is flanked by unidentified portraits of Columbus [ 14 ] .
In the 1840s, the Columbian Bank, Boston, Massachusetts, issued Columbus notes in respective denominations : the $ 5 notes had as their cardinal vignette the land of Columbus, a theme that was besides used, from the late 1850s, for the $ 500 notes ; on the $ 10 notes, an nameless portrait of Columbus appears at justly ; the identical portrait was used, with an extra portrayal of George Washington at left, for the $ 100 notes in the 1860s [ 15 ] .
The land of Columbus besides appeared on $ 1 notes issued in the late 1850s by the Bank of Columbus, Columbus, Wisconsin. other denominations from this bank besides bear portraits ( after Parmigianino ) of the mariner [ 16 ] .
A bombastic number of banks had “ Columbia ” or similar denominations as separate of their names, though they did not necessarily issue notes depicting columbus : the deceitful, possibly non-existent Columbia Bank, Washington, D.C. ( H-DC-195 ) ; The City Bank of Columbus, Columbus, Ohio ( H-OH-170 ) ; the Bank of Columbus, Columbus, Georgia ( H-GA-105 ), etc .
still other banks had no address to the mariner in their names though they printed Columbus on their notes. Some of these banks have been mentioned, but prime examples, particularly on report of the strike orange coloring on the back and the Parmigianino portrait in the center field, were the $ 100 notes from the Citizen’s Bank of Louisiana ( on the notes ’ front a decidedly “ Roman ” raid of George Washington is surrounded by three scantily dress female allegories ) .
Less outstanding examples came from the Market Bank, Boston, MA, which in the 1830s issued $ 50 notes bearing an nameless portrait of Columbus at right, with the numeral 50 above and below [ 17 ] .
besides in the 1830s, the Bank of Grenada, Mississippi, and the Bank of Wilmington and Brandywine, Wilmington, Delaware, emitted $ 100 notes bearing as their cardinal vignette Columbus standing, with his crew and native Americans at a huge cross [ 18 ] .
A Parmigianino portrait besides graced $ 5 notes from the Tolwanda Bank, Tolwanda, Pennsylvania, in the 1840s. A framed Parmigianino portrait of a Renaissance-type Columbus, flanked by two females, appeared on $ 1 notes from the Bank of Owego, Owego, New York, during the 1840s and ’ 50s. The same portrait was printed on $ 1 notes from the Bank of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and the Peoples Bank, Carmi, Illinois, both in the early on 1850s .
Unidentified framed portraits of Columbus besides appeared on $ 2 notes from the Newport Bank, Newport, Rhode Island, in the 1820s and ’ 30s ; from the Brunswick Bank, Brunswick, Maine, in the late 1840s ; from the Mechanics & Traders Bank, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the Warwick Bank, Warwick, Rhode Island, the White River Bank, Bethel, Vermont and the Bank of Brattleboro, Brattleboro, Vermont, in the 1850s ; and from the Monadnock Bank, Jaffrey, New Hampshire, in the 1850s and ’ 60s [ 19 ] .
besides in the 1840s, the Canal Bank, New Orleans, Louisiana, issued $ 10 notes bearing a Parmigianino portrait of Columbus at impart, with the numeral 10 placed above and below [ 20 ] .
ultimately, the Boylston Bank, Boston, Massachusetts, in the 1840s and ’ 50s issued $ 10 notes with portraits both of George Washington and Christoph Columbus. Washington ( flanked by a winged angel ) and Columbus ( after Parmigianino ) were besides put on $ 20 notes from the Miners Bank of Pottsville, Pottsville, Pennsylvania ; in the 1860s, the Columbian Bank, Boston, Massachusetts, issued $ 100 notes with the identical duplicate fare [ 21 ] .
$ 100 notes from the Lime Rock Bank, East Thomaston, Maine, had ONE HUNDRED written across the numeral 100, with an unidentified portrait of Columbus below [ 22 ]. The identical design appeared on $ 100 notes from the Wrentham Bank, Wrentham, Massachusetts, in the 1840s- ’ 50s [ 23 ] .
A rare fractional note, emitted by the Keystone Mills, Highland, Florida, similarly shows a Parmigianino portrayal of Columbus :
After the earned run average of private money, the new national currency–a wartime expediency–was to show scenes that would represent noteworthy events from the still-young nation ’ s founding history. All designs were to put adenine much distance between the nation ’ south hard-won independence and its early british rule .
In the eyes of the authorities, Christopher Columbus symbolized the New World, not the Old. The inventor was an ideal establish visualize, and representations of him–portraits angstrom well as historical scenes–can be found on several types of union notes [ 24 ]. National Banknotes ( and National Gold Banknotes of California ) showed, in chronological order, Columbus discovering estate and the landing of Columbus .
Another Columbus picture appeared on the $5 National Bank Notes, Original Series ( 1863-1875 ) and Series 1875 ( 1875 to 1902 ), and the $5 National Gold Bank Notes, Original Series. The vignette on the front is like the one on the 1869 United States note, and it is besides called “ Columbus in Sight of Land ” ( however, the engrave is by Charles Burt, after Charles Fenton ’ mho design ; more of this anon ). The discovery of new land is at left. The vignette ( which Louis Delnoce engraved after Charles Fenton ) shows Columbus as the principal figure on deck of his caravel, therefore depicting the moment of dramatic climax in the internet explorer ’ second life. At right, we see Columbus introducing America in the form of an amerind female to her three sisters of the Old World—Europe, Asia, and Africa ( W.W. Rice adapted a paint by T.A. Liebler, America Presented to the Old World ) .
On the back of the notes is James Bannister’s version of John Vanderlyn’s The Landing of Columbus at the Island of Guanahani, West Indies, October 12, 1492, the monumental history painting from the national Capitol that shows the mariner and inventor stand in a triumphant put on the beach of Guanahani, surrounded by his men [ 25 ]. The bills became enormously popular .
however, they were counterfeited so wide ( an estimated $ 200,000 were in circulation before the forgers were caught ) that the Treasury Department initiated a design switch with the Second Charter in 1882. On the new notes, Columbus was replaced by James Garfield, who had been assassinated in 1881 .
$1,000 United States notes ( Series of 1869, 1878, 1880 ) alike depicted Columbus. In these instances, he is shown in his sketch, seated, his legs crossed, and dressed in what were thought to be contemporary garments–a tunic, tights, and cloak. He is holding a part of newspaper in one hand, while he contemplates the ground on the earth to his right. adjacent to the terrestrial earth is a map and a overstate glass. The vignette, placed at left on the note ’ s boldness, conveys an effigy of learning and eruditeness, together with Columbus ’ abilities as a sailing master, his airy courage and genius, and his conviction that the earth was not flat .
Columbus ’ virtues, the note suggests, lived on in DeWitt Clinton, United States Senator, Mayor of New York City, and Governor of New York, in which capacity he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal, finished in 1825. His portrayal is in the note ’ south center [ 26 ] .
credibly the most compel Columbus note is the $1 United States (Legal Tender) Note from 1869. Known among collectors as the “Rainbow” note because of its blue-tinted composition and colorful overprintings of crimson and inner light fleeceable, it carries a portrait of George Washington ( engraved by Alfred Sealey from the celebrated Athenaeum painting by Gilbert Stuart ) and a vignette showing Christopher Columbus in spy of land. The Columbus sketch was done by Joseph P. Ourdan after a painting by Christian ( sometimes called Charles ) Schussele, Columbus, Discovery of Land. It shows a beard captain among his crew. Columbus is wearing a tunic, stifle breeches, and a mantle. A few of the sailors are exultant, if not ecstatic, pointing toward the domain in the background. Others are on their knees, praying, their eyes on the captain. Columbus is depicted in an good position, looking dignified and self-assured, his right hand over the heart. The stress in the representation clearly is on Columbus ’ heroic fictional character american samoa well as on the epochal moment of discovery .
The $ 1 United States eminence of 1869 is an aesthetic and technical success, rightly chosen for the cover of Q. David Bowers’ Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money. But it was its ideological message which proved tone-setting. The eminence ’ s composition—Washington ’ second portrayal in the center, looking at Columbus at left—suggests both a chronological and a causal relationship between the confront of the nation and the momentous consequence of October 12, 1492 .
Claudia Bushman has termed this relation the “ Columbus-Washington-Connection ”. The “ connection ” constitutes the basis of a larger cultural narrative, with Columbus and Washington as the chief protagonists .
Put plainly, the narrative suggests that Washington became the Father of His nation because Columbus had discovered the New World for the Americans [ 27 ]. The narrative continued to be an authoritative element in the popular imagination, as the design was kept for subsequent serial, in 1874, vitamin a well as for several serial from 1875 to 1917 ( all with the “ sawhorse reverse ”, alleged because the dedication “ United States of America ” was set in a planate “ X ” evocative of a sawhorse ) .
It besides had a spectacular rejoinder on the back of the $5 Federal Reserve Note, series 1914, and on the Federal Reserve Bank Note, series 1915 and 1918 ( on these notes, we see Columbus in sight of land at left, and the landing of the Pilgrims at right field ; the front is graced by a portrait of Lincoln ) [ 28 ] .
The arrangement, in 1869, of Founding Father of the modern state ( an American of the present ) and finder of the celibate ( a man of the European past ) provided ideological stability and comfort for a nation that had been ravaged by the Civil War. The beginning of the “ Columbus-Washington-Connection ” must be sought in the War of Independence, though. then Columbus was used to legitimize the rebellion against England, the mother state. Although the navigator himself had been convinced that he had reached India, he was however found serviceable as the protagonist of a counter-narrative against prevailing myths–of pious puritans arsenic well as of noble cavaliers. therefore, the inventor in the service of the spanish kings transmogrified into an “ american ” hero, if not a messiah [ 29 ]. His voyages along the coasts of the Americas came to both reflect and anticipate the village, putatively ordained by God, by the english colonists .
Columbus was popular not just in numismatics and banknote production. He became a cultural investment throughout the raw nation. deoxyadenosine monophosphate early as 1792, the Tammany Society of New York and the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston celebrated the three-hundredth anniversary of Columbus ’ land. Five years earlier, in 1787, the poet Joel Barlow published his epic poem The Vision of Columbus ( it grew into the a lot more expansive Columbiad by 1807 ). William Dunlap’s play The Glory of Columbia was foremost performed in 1803 [ 30 ]. Noah Webster’s american Spelling Book ended with two pages of important dates in american history, beginning with Columbus ’ discovery of America in 1492 and ending with the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. Horatio Greenough’s 12-ton marble statue of George Washington was commissioned in 1832, the class of the centennial of the founder ’ s parentage. little flank figures of an american indian and Christopher Columbus represent the New and the Old World [ 31 ] .
By 1850, three major biographies and histories of Columbus had been published, attesting to the finder ’ s prestige. The books ’ authors–Washington Irving ( 1828 ), George Bancroft ( 1834 ), and William Hickling Prescott ( 1837 ) —did not see Columbus as a man of a distant past, but preferably as a romantic bomber and pioneer, one to help legitimate west expansion, a announce of culture and the modern era .
Irving ’ mho history of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus became spectacularly successful, specially among the cosmopolitan public. New editions were published about every class until 1850, then about every two or three years. altogether, there were about 175 editions from 1828 until 1900, some of them expressly for the use as schoolbooks [ 32 ]. And that is not counting the many translations–into spanish, french, german, Dutch, Greek, Italian, Polish, Swedish, and Russian–made before Irving ’ s death in 1859 .
By the time Columbus was being prepared for Irving ’ s Complete Works edition in 1980, the biography had seen about 200 editions .
“ Few books in modern times, ” Andrew Burstein writes, “ have had such a reach, or such an impact. ” [ 33 ] The work, specially the one-volume condensation of it that Irving inaugural published in 1829, was the most popular biography of Columbus in the english language until the publication of Samuel Eliot Morison’s Admiral of the Ocean Sea in 1942 [ 34 ] .
Name-giving was another cultural investment .
“ Columbia ” had been a poetic denomination already for the north american colonies. Following the colonists ’ victory at Yorktown, New York ’ randomness “ King ’ s College ” was renamed “ Columbia College ” ( it became Columbia University in 1896 ). South Carolina ’ s modern capital became Columbia. The area of the new federal capital became “ Territory of Columbia ”, later “ District of Columbia. ” There are other place names abounding, such as Columbus, Mississippi, or Columbus, Ohio ; and there is the Columbia River, reached by Lewis and Clark in 1805. New York ’ s Columbia Avenue was opened in 1892. In the lapp class, the World ’ randomness Columbian Exposition was dedicated in Chicago ( it opened entirely in 1893, because of delays ) [ 35 ] .
On the occasion of the World ’ mho Columbian Exposition, the United States Mint produced a half-dollar coin bearing a portrait of Columbus. It was the very first U.S. coin bearing the portrayal of a historic person arsenic well as the inaugural official commemorative coin .
The Columbus half-dollar, of which some five million examples were struck for the Exposition, was a complete failure .
The coins would be sold for $ 1 each and were expected to raise some $ 10 million. While many were sold at the fairly, countless others remained in Treasury vaults and subsequently had to be released for circulation at their expression rate .
already before the coins were even designed, there had been objections. Senator John Sherman of Ohio claimed that the enormous number of the coins “ would destroy their measure as souvenirs. ” Senator William Allison of Iowa surmised that besides many “ children would cry for them, and the erstwhile men would demand them, ” so that the coins would be “ seclude from circulation and fall into a condition of innocuous desuetude. ” [ 36 ]
artistically, there besides is not much to write home about. Both the obverse ( designed by Olin Lewis Warner and engraved by Charles E. Barber ) and the rearward ( created by George T. Morgan ) display the scholasticism fostered by the Mint in Philadelphia .
The public reception excessively was anything but glowing. “ … it will pass, ” was all that the New York Press had to say, while the Boston Globe observed that to look at the coin will make one “ repent that Columbus wasn ’ t a better looking man. ” The Philadelphia Ledger noted, “ If it were not known in progress whose vignette adorns the columbian memento one-half dollar, the average perceiver would be undecided as to whether it is intended to represent Daniel Webster or Henry Ward Beecher. ” [ 37 ]
But if the 1892 half-dollar was “ a great disappointment ” as a study of art, then the official decoration for the Chicago fairly was its accurate inverse .
The obverse, the creation of no less an artist than Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who completed the design entirely at the fair ’ second close up in November 1893, shows an exuberant Columbus striding ashore on an island in the New World. Yet unlike Ourdan ’ s vignette on the 1869 note, on the Saint-Gaudens obverse, the early participants are kept away from the center, appearing at lower justly ( there are three male figures, one bearing an unfurl streamer, and above are them the Pillars of Hercules [ the Straits of Gibraltar ] with three spanish caravels and the dedication plus extremist, “ more beyond ” ). The decoration is dominated by a metamorphose Columbus, arms extended, palms turned up, and eyes to the flip .
With all the details centered around the herculean emotions of the inventor, the constitution becomes a complete entity, breathe, in the words of artwork historian Cornelius Vermeule, “ domination of the human design over a limit area made matter to by variations in surface planes. ”
Saint-Gaudens besides created a reverse design, though his models were rejected–the unite resultant role, the sculptor ’ s son late explained, of victorian naughtiness and primness. rather, Charles E. Barber ’ s design was chosen for the inverse [ 38 ] .
At the Chicago fair, Columbus besides was commemorated through a replica of the Santa Maria anchored in the lake, a replicate of the convent of La Rabida, a exultant arch topped by a quadriga usher Columbus standing in a Roman chariot trace by four horses, ampere well as any count of elongated memento coins and, to display the United States ’ technical progress, medals and tokens made from aluminum [ 39 ] .
Numismatic tributes to the quincentennial besides came from around the worldly concern .
A french decoration, modeled by W. Mayer after the U.S. columbian two-cent stamp, depicts the land on its obverse. Clad in armor, Columbus wields a sword in his right hired hand ; a group of his fellow adventurers stands behind him. The dedication reads “ Dedicated to the american english People in Honor of the four-hundredth Anniversary of the Discovery of America ” and, below, “ United We Stand Divided We Fall. ” The change by reversal features a high-relief tear of Liberty encircled by stars, with the 1892 date below [ 40 ] .
Another decoration was produced in Milan, Italy. Known as the Milan decoration, the original issue of this rare beauty was 102 millimeter in diameter and mint in bronze and blank metallic. It portrays a raid of Columbus on its obverse with allegorical figures of an indian Princess and a clothe Liberty around the sides clasping hands under a ball. The inscription “ Cristoforo Colombo ” surrounds the bust. The rearward shows the shields of a count of american english states around a fit filled with allegorical figures. The United States Capitol at Washington and the Brooklyn Bridge can be seen in the background [ 41 ] .
Questioning Columbus’ Significance
The years of the columbian celebrations are customarily regarded as the apex of the internet explorer ’ south popularity. In 1892, 400 years after Columbus ’ first base voyage, President Benjamin Harrison first proclaimed Columbus Day a national vacation .
yet 1892 besides was the year when Columbus ’ descent began .
Howard Kretschmar’s massive Columbus statue at Lakefront Park ( nowadays ’ second Grant Park ) had been unveiled with much ostentation, yet it was about immediately considered offensive and finally taken down, replaced by a statue of William McKinley, the martyr president of the united states .
In other respects, excessively, Columbus was at best the tuberosity grise of Chicago. already at the fair, which was attended by more than 27 million people between May 1 and October 30, 1893, the significance of the mariner and his discovery for the build up of the american nation was being questioned by historians like Justin Winsor, Eugene Lawrence, and Charles Francis Adams. In their awaken, the discovery itself was credited to any issue of individual explorers or groups—from Leif Ericson to the Portuguese to the Chinese to the Basques [ 42 ] .
In themselves, these questionings were only symptoms of a deep sociable conflict : the growing heathen and cultural diverseness of american society during the earned run average of the New Immigration, 1880-1925, when some 25 million people arrived in the U.S [ 43 ]. During those years, solid nativist sentiments emerged against newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe ; concomitantly, Columbus ’ condition as an important name of social cohesiveness was challenged. While the Italian community continued to claim him as their bomber, his meaning for the symbolic constitution of the american state was in firm descent at the same time as an stress on a distinctly american past was given more and more system of weights .
“ emphasis on a distinctly american past ” was the hide or not-so-hidden agenda in the great currency reform of the 1920s .
The figures are impressive : between 1863 and 1929 more than 160 different types, classes, and varieties of federal banknotes were put in circulation. By 1929, the number was cut in one-half ; as of 1930, merely 15 were left. As for portraits, they were limited to those of “ the Presidents of the United States ”. This was the exploit of a especial committee installed by Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon, which had decided that such portraits “ have a more permanent familiarity in the minds of the public than any others. ” [ 44 ]
never mind that the bible “ presidents ” is slightly of a misnomer, as neither Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, nor Salmon P. Chase always served as president. What is important is that by 1929, “ all historical scenes of home significance had disappeared from american newspaper money and with them all depictions of Columbus ’ great discovery. ” [ 45 ]
rather, the currentness, the “ department of state ’ sulfur calling cards ” [ 46 ], mirroring the values the state represents, such as stability, continuity, and resilience to crises, was graced by national heroes—such as Lincoln, whose portrait replaced Columbus on the $ 5 Federal Reserve and Federal Reserve Bank notes ( until 1929, the back however showed Columbus ’ land, juxtaposed to the land of the Pilgrims ; it was then replaced by the Lincoln Memorial, which had been opened in 1922 ) .
It is not that Christopher Columbus–or Cristoforo Colombo, as the Italians knew him–was completely eliminated from America ’ s cultural memory .
Columbus may have lost his condition as an american national champion, but the italian American community in detail considered Columbus ’ landing as separate of their heritage .
There had been secret celebrations of a “ Festa di Colombo ” in Chicago in the 1840s, though the first populace celebration was held in New York City on October 12, 1866 [ 47 ]. Celebrating the achievements of the “ Almirante de la Mar Océana ” ( the “ Admiral of the Ocean Sea ”, a championship Columbus had received from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ) continued. Columbus Day was first gear enshrined as a legal vacation in the United States through the lobby of Angelo Noce, a first-generation italian American, in Denver. Colorado governor Jesse F. McDonald proclaimed it a statewide holiday in 1905 ; it was made a statutory holiday in 1907. Again in 1907, a Columbus Memorial was commissioned in Washington, DC, thanks to the persistent lobby of the Knights of Columbus .
Designed by sculptor Lorado Z. Taft of Chicago, the monument consists of a semi-circular fountain, at the center of which is a pylon crowned with a globe supported by four eagles connected by a florilegium. A 15-foot statue of Columbus, facing the U.S. Capitol and wrapped in a cape, stands in presence of the pylon. Flanking Columbus are two induct allegorical figures representing the Old and the New World .
The inscription reads :
“ TO | THE MEMORY OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS | WHOSE HIGH FAITH | AND INDOMITABLE COURAGE | GAVE TO MANKIND | A NEW WORLD. ”
The repository was unveiled on June 8, 1912, under the presence of President William Taft [ 48 ]. Since then, the National Columbus Day Celebration Association and the National Park Service have been honoring Columbus ’ achievements by co-hosting a Columbus Day celebration at the Memorial .
The Knights of Columbus continued to be active in other avenues as well, annually emitting a decoration to be sold to those joining in the parade in celebration of Columbus Day in Massachusetts. Columbus Day had been established as a vacation in that state in 1910. The 1911 decoration, for exemplify, has a square tablet topped by a Columbus break on its obverse ; at left are the three caravels, at right a modern ocean soft-shell clam, an airplane above it, emblematic of the changed conditions of navigation. The decoration ’ mho reverse shows a laurel wreath enveloping a lighted flashlight, entwined with a decoration scroll with 1492 at left and 1911 at right field. Below is the inscription : COLUMBUS DAY | MASSACHUSETTS | OCTOBER 12, 1911 [ 49 ] .
In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt designated the Giornata Nazionale de Cristoforo Colombo, that is, October 12, as Columbus Day. In 1966, Mariano A. Lucco, from Buffalo, New York, founded the National Columbus Day Committee, which lobbied to make Columbus Day a union vacation. These efforts were successful, and October 12 became a federal vacation in 1968. This was changed in 1971 when Columbus Day was set on the second Monday in October ( it is strictly coincident that in 2020 that sidereal day is October 12 ; following year ’ south Columbus Day will be celebrated on October 11 ) .
Columbus Day is broadly observed nowadays by banks, the bond market, the U.S. Postal Service and other federal agencies, most department of state government offices, many businesses, and most school districts. actual observation, however, varies in unlike parts of the United States, and most states do not celebrate Columbus Day as an official state vacation. Some states, among them Hawaii and South Dakota, have replaced it with celebrations of Indigenous People’s Day .
american english cities besides are eschewing Columbus Day to celebrate autochthonal People ’ randomness Day. Beginning with Berkeley, CA, in 1992, the year of the quincentennial, the tilt now includes Austin, TX ; Boise, Idaho ; Los Angeles ; Portland, Oregon ; Seattle ; and dozens of early cities. Two surveys conducted in 2013 and 2015 found that 26 to 38 percentage of american english adults are not in favor of celebrating Columbus Day .
confrontation to Columbus Day dates back to at least the late nineteenth century when anti-immigrant nativists fought its celebration because of its association with immigrants from catholic countries, most notably Italy, arsenic well as with the American Catholic brotherly administration, the Knights of Columbus. Anti-Catholics like the Ku Klux Klan opposed celebrations of Columbus or monuments about him because they believed that it would increase Catholic influence in the United States. [ 50 ] .
But by far, the most widespread opposition began in the final years of the twentieth century .
This opposition, which decries the actions taken by Columbus and other Europeans against the autochthonal populations of the Americas, was initially led by Native Americans and late expanded upon by left-leaning activists. It was at a gather of native Americans in Davis, California, that October 12, 1992, was declared to be the “ International Day of Solidarity with Indigenous People “ [ 51 ] .
Columbus Day celebrations and the myths surrounding the inventor, some critics have said, only mask the ongoing actions and injustices against native Americans. Anthropologist Jack Weatherford tied declared, in 2016, that on Columbus Day, Americans celebrate “ one of the greatest waves of genocide known in history. ” [ 52 ]
Columbus ’ south character besides did not escape criticism .
He was surely a brainy navigator, yet Columbus never hesitated to exploit and enslave the autochthonal population .
Washington Irving in 1829 could hush exempt Columbus from the appoint of the discoverers ’ “ excesses ”, laying the blame on his followers–villains like Roldán, Bobadilla, and Porras [ 53 ]. Norman Solomon, in Columbus Day : A Clash of Myth and History ( 1995 ), has no solitaire for Irving ’ s “ double standard ”, which upheld the myth of Columbus ’ “ sound policy and liberal views ” .
Solomon quotes from Columbus ’ initial description in his logbook ( “ They would make fine servants … ” ) and, at greater length, from Bartolomé de las Casas’ multivolume Historia de las Indias, which describes the discoverers as driven by “ insatiate avarice, ” leading to “ kill, terrorize, and torturing the native peoples ” with atrocious cruelty [ 54 ]
criticism of Columbus reached a new bill when on June 9, 2020, protesters tore down the Columbus statue in downtown Richmond, Virginia, following a peaceful demonstration outside of the statue in respect of autochthonal people. The statue was ripped from its basis, spray painted, set on fire, and subsequently thrown in a lake .
Statues of Columbus were besides damaged in other places. Outside the State Capitol in St. Paul, Minnesota, protesters tied ropes around the statue ’ second neck and yanked it from its pedestal, while in Boston, the head of a Columbus statue was removed nightlong. But these acts need to be seen in the context of the wave of protests initially set off by the murder of George Floyd .
Directed at first toward monuments to the Confederacy, the rage expanded to encompass a swath of imperialist or genocidal Europeans, including Columbus [ 55 ] Predictably, President Trump’s response has been a battleful administrator order and aggressive determent of people who would “ impede the purpose or routine ” of the monuments, memorials, and statues .
The issue is more complicated, though. As Susan Tallman recently argued, it is impossible to limit populace art to works “ whose subjects and styles are in lockstep with our own ethics ; our museums would be vacate if we did. ”
On the early hand, it is evenly impossible to ignore the world that “ certain forms of public display act as endorsements of the values of those who erected them. classical sculptures could only be loved by Christians once the gods they represented had died. Robert E. Lee is not yet a dead god. ” [ 56 ]
Nor, of course, is Christopher Columbus .
But is Columbus Day very about the historical person ? Or is it preferably about the momentous, world-changing event that took place on a small island in the Caribbean on October 12, 1492 ?
Professor of History and italian Studies William J. Connell thinks that the latter is the font, adding that what Columbus gets criticized for nowadays are “ attitudes that were distinctive of the European sail captains and merchants who plied the Mediterranean and the Atlantic in the 15th century. ” [ 57 ]
While these words are barely sufficient to assuage the anger and feel of injustice among autochthonal people, it is however true that Columbus Day does not commemorate Columbus ’ birthday ( as was the practice for Presidents Washington and Lincoln, and as is inactive done for Martin Luther King, Jr. ). Nor does it commemorate his death date ( which is when christian saints and martyrs are memorialized ), but quite the date of his arrival in the New World.
Read more : Ancient Coins
And that, Connell adds, was precisely the intention of the people who put together the Columbus Day celebrations of 1892 .
When President Benjamin Harrison in that year proclaimed Columbus Day a national vacation, praising Columbus as “ the pioneer of progress and Enlightenment ”, it was function of a wide effort–after the massacre by U.S. troops of about 200 Lakota Sioux at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890 and the March 14, 1891, lynching in a New Orleans prison of 11 Italians by a syndicate led by big Louisiana politicians–to pacify Native Americans and italian Americans. President Harrison in his opening actor’s line did not allude to either the massacre or the lynch, though he made it clear that October 12, 1892, would be a national holiday recognizing both Native Americans, who were here ahead Columbus, and the many immigrants–Italians included–who were good then coming to the United States in astounding numbers. It was to be a national vacation that was not about the Founding Fathers or the Civil War, but about the rest of American history, about the domain and all its people [ 58 ]
During the anniversary in 1892, teachers, the clergy, poets, and politicians made use of versatile rituals to inculcate in people the ideals of patriotism. There were themes such as citizenship boundaries, social build up, and the importance of loyalty to the nation, brought to prominence by Francis Bellamy’s “ Pledge of Allegiance ” .
And there were parades .
In New York, about 12,000 populace school students grouped into 20 regiments. The boys marched in school uniforms, while the girls, dressed in red, white, and bluing, sat in bleachers. besides award were military exercise squads and marching bands, some 5,500 students from the Catholic schools, a well as students from the individual schools. These included the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, the Italian and American Colonial School, the Dante Alighieri Italian College, and the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. A college division brought together students from New York University and Columbia College ( it was not yet Columbia University ), who marched in white hats and white sweaters, with a message on top of their hats that spelled out “ We are the People. ”
For Connell, what follows from this is that “ Columbus Day is for all Americans. It marks the first encounter that brought together the original Americans and future ones. A distribute of suffering followed, and a bunch of accomplishment too. ” [ 59 ]
One wonders : if Columbus Day actually is for all Americans, then why are some groups not partially of the visualize ? There surely has been enough suffer loaded upon them, much as there has been accomplishment .
* * *
[ 1 ] See Rulau, “ Numismatic Recognition of the New World, 1770-72 ”, 1856-58 .
[ 2 ] For the sake of completeness, the American Numismatic Society (ANS) produced a tasteful decoration ( available in ash grey, lead, and bronze ), which showed, on the obverse, one of Columbus ’ ships mirrored in a raise ball, and, on the reverse, an american eagle hover over the globe : hypertext transfer protocol : //numismatics.org/collection/1992.136.1. The St. Augustine/St. Johns County (Florida) Columbus Commission besides sanctioned a decoration in realization of the quincentennial. The obverse shows Columbus ’ three ships heading out to sea ; the rearward features, bury alia, a portrait of Don Pedro Menendez, a spanish soldier who founded and named St. Augustine, the oldest city in North America. See The Numismatist, October 1992, 1365-66. In fact, the American Numismatic Association (ANA) dedicated the integral consequence to the quincentennial. Apart from many feature articles, the front cover showed Charles Burt ’ s engraving of the 1892 coin deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Franklin Mint’s bronze 1992 calendar/art decoration. worth mention is besides the 1992 keepsake wag plan of American Banknote Commemoratives (ABNC), which included many issues featuring Columbus deposit notes, tender dies, and admission tickets to the Chicago Fair of 1893. See ibid, 1387-88, and, for an illustration of entree tickets, some of which bore a portrayal of Columbus, Schefler, “ The World ’ mho Columbian Exposition, ” 58. For an authoritative book about columbian Exposition paper memorabilia, see Doolin, 1893 columbian Exposition Admission and Concession Tickets .
[ 3 ] Irving to Lady Granard, Madrid, May 7, 1827, CW-Letters, 2:235 .
[ 4 ] Ibid., and 237n9 .
[ 5 ] Irving to Prince Dmitri Dolgorouki, Seville, February 4 and March 11, 1829, ibid, 2:377- 78, 388 ; see besides Irving ’ s letter to John Murray, his publisher, of February 14, 1829, ibid, 383 .
[ 6 ] Irving to Bryant, December 26, 1851, ibid, 4:283. See a. Irving ’ s drawn-out letter to Bryant of December 20, 1852, in Pierre M. Irving, The Life and Letters of Washington Irving, 4:93-96, ampere well as Ben Harris McClary, Washington Irving and the House of Murray ( Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press, 1969 ), 115, and John Boyd Thacher, Christopher Columbus, His Life, His work, His Remains, 3 vols. ( 1903-1904 ; repr. New York : AMS Press ; 1967 ), 1:69- 70 .
[ 7 ] Vermeule, Numismatic Art in America, 87-88, 230, and Hessler, “ Capturing the True Columbus, ” 1436-39. In the late 1850s, the “ Parmigianino ” Columbus was identified as the condottiere Galeazzo Sanvitale of Fontanello, Province of Parma :
hypertext transfer protocol : //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File : ( formerly_thought_to_be ) _Christopher_Columbus, _1451_-_1506_RMG_RP6231.jpg. For a fanciful illustration by F. O. C. Darley for a projected exemplify volume of Irving ’ s Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, see The Worlds of Washington Irving, 54 ; the draw, which shows a temper and warlike Columbus kneel on the beach of Guanahani, is available from the New York Public Library, Manuscript and Archives Division in the Duyckinck, Hellman, Seligman ’ sulfur collections and Washington Irving Papers .
[ 8 ] Tschachler, The Greenback, 111 .
[ 9 ] “ The Admiral was a well-built man of more than average stature, the face long, the boldness reasonably high, his body neither fat nor lean. He had an aquiline nose and light eyes. His complexion excessively was lighter and tending to bright red. In youth his haircloth was blond, but when he reached the age of thirty, it all turned white. ” Ferdinand Columbus, The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand, 9 .
[ 10 ] Vermeule, Numismatic Art in America, 87-88, 230, and Curtis, Christopher Columbus, detail 25 ; for a unlike genealogy of the portrait used for the columbian one-half dollar, see Schefler, “ The World ’ sulfur Columbian Exposition, ” 55-56. The Musei Civici di Como, Italy, besides holds a portrayal by an unknown artist, which is alike to but not identical with the Lotto portrait ; and it is date 1516 : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.cristoforocolombo.com/ritratti-co lombo/ritratto-cristoforo-colombo-anonimo-ai-musei-civici-como/, accessed September 15, 2020 .
[ 11 ] See Irving, CW-Columbus, eight, and view the etch at the Library of Congress : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.loc.gov/resource/pga.02005/, accessed June 29, 2020. For more on Columbus por traits, see Lester, “ Looks Are Deceiving ”, 221-27, Annaloro, “ Man of Mystery ”, 33 ( both on the Lotto portrait ), and Oliver and Kelly, “ Columbus Controversy ”, 98-99 .
[ 12 ] Hessler, “ Capturing the True Columbus ”, 1,439. Haxby in his Standard Catalog of United States Obsolete Bank Notes ( 2:1113 ) mistakenly identified the portrayal on the notes from the Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company as Fernando de Soto ’ second .
[ 13 ] Maella ’ s original was in the possession of the Duke of Veragua, a descendant of Columbus. Veragua did not think much of the Muñoz, privilege, in his symmetry with Washington Irving, the Antonio Moro portrait. A copy of the Muñoz hangs in the Archives of the Indies at Seville. Another copy was presented to the Philadelphia Academy of Arts in 1818 but disappeared a few years former and has remained untraceable. “ Report of the United States Commission to the columbian Historical exhibition at Madrid, 1892-1893 ”, 237. hypertext transfer protocol : //babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt ? id=ucm.5325305690 & view=1up & seq=10
[ 14 ] Haxby, OH-320-G40 .
[ 15 ] Haxby, MA-140-G66, G-122, G-84, and G-118 .
[ 16 ] Haxby, WI-95-G2, G2a, and R5 ( $ 3b notes raised from the G2 series ) ; for the $ 2 notes, see G4, G4a, and R7 ( $ 5 notes raised from the G4 series ) .
[ 17 ] Haxby, MA-265-G50 .
[ 18 ] Haxby, MA-265-G50, MS-80-G20 and DE-85-G56 ; for thoroughly illustrations, see Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money, 7:399 and 8:46. Another bank issuing notes with the identical vignette was the Farmers Bank of the State of Delaware, Dover, Delaware ( Haxby, DE-15-G90a and G90b ) .
[ 19 ] Haxby, PA-650-G4, NY-2155-G22, G22a through G22d, NJ-345-G2a, G20a and G20b, IL-115-G2, RI-160-G20 ( illustration in Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money, 5:88 ), ME-125-G8, NH-265-G10, RI-545-G30 ( example in Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money, 5:288 ), VT-20-G8 ( exemplification ibid, 5:326 ), VT35- G24, and NH-135-G6 and G6b. $ 5 notes from the City Bank of Troy, Troy, New York, besides bore the identical vignette ( Haxby-NY-2735-G36 and G36a-b, 1840s- ’ 60s ), as did $ 20 notes from the Mechanics Bank, Providence, RI ( Haxby, RI-340-G36, 1850s ) .
[ 20 ] Haxby, LA105-G20 .
[ 21 ] Haxby, MA-120-G10, PA-575-G32, MA-140-G118 ( illustration in Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of Obsolete Paper Money, 3:90 ) .
[ 22 ] Haxby, H-ME-275-G72 .
[ 23 ] Haxby, MA-1335-G86 .
[ 24 ] Altogether, between 1863 and 1929, four different representations of Columbus and his landing appeared on five types of federal currency, in 14 different series. For an overview of the development of America ’ south newspaper money since the Civil War, see Lauer, “ Money as Mass Communication ”, 121–24 .
[ 25 ] Vanderlyn ’ s paint was inspired by the description of the landing in Washington Irving ’ randomness biography. Loock, “ Goodbye Columbus, Hello Abe ! ”, 87-89 and for illustrations, Friedberg and Friedberg, Paper Money of the United States, 80, 332, 339, and Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money, 217, 219, and 223 .
[ 26 ] Loock, “ Goodbye Columbus, Hello Abe ! ”, 86 ; for illustrations and abbreviated descriptions, see Friedberg and Friedberg, Paper Money of the United States, 32-33, 325, and Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money, 734-37 .
[ 27 ] Bushman, America Discovers Columbus, 53. On the “ Columbus-Washington-Connection ” on the national currency, see Loock, “ Goodbye Columbus, Hello Abe ! ”. On Columbus ’ influence on the rewrite of America ’ s national origin myth, see Kubal, Cultural Movements and Collective Memory .
[ 28 ] Bowers, Whitman Encyclopedia of U.S. Paper Money, 111-16 ( for the $ 1 notes ), 253-61 ( for the Federal Reserve notes ), and 262-65 ( for the Federal Reserve Bank notes ) .
[ 29 ] On Columbus as an american “ messiah ”, see Boorstin, The Discoverers, 232 .
[ 30 ] Smorag, “ From Columbia to the United States of America ”, 74-75, and Schlereth, “ Columbia, Columbus, and Columbianism ”, 937-68 .
[ 31 ] Greenough ’ s statue was on display in the Capitol Rotunda from 1841 to 1843, when it was relocated to the east lawn. In 1908 Congress transferred the statue to the Smithsonian Institution, where it was exhibited in the Smithsonian Castle until its move to the new National Museum of American History in 1964. It has resided on the second floor of the Museum always since. When the Museum reopened November 21, 2008, the Washington statue became the signature artifact for a segment in the west flank of the museum focused on american lives. National Museum of American History, “ Landmark Object : George Washington Statue, 1841. ”
[ 32 ] According to Andrew Burstein, Irving ’ s Columbus generally was “ the most normally owned book ” in american libraries in the mid-19th hundred and “ undeniably influenced how american english school-children were taught their state ’ sulfur origins. ” Burstein, The Original Knickerbocker, 196. For the 1833 recommendation by the New York State Legislature that Irving ’ s Columbus be used as a textbook for the coarse schools, see Myers, The Worlds of Washington Irving, 73 .
[ 33 ] Burstein, The Original Knickerbocker, 205 .
[ 34 ] On the popularity of Irving ’ mho Columbus, see a. Williams, Life of Irving, 1:355, 2:304 .
[ 35 ] For a history of the fair, see Larson, The Devil in the White City, and Loock, Kolumbus in lair USA, 85-91, 118-39 .
[ 36 ] Schefler, “ The World ’ mho Columbian Exposition ”, 55-56, quotations 55 .
[ 37 ] All imperativeness comments qtd. in The Numismatist, January 1943, 20 .
[ 38 ] Vermeule, Numismatic Art in America, 90-92, quotation 90. Saint-Gaudens had rendered a nude male youth representing the Spirit of America in his initial design for the reverse. Both this and two more proposals were turned down. alternatively, Charles E. Barber ’ s uncontroversial ( and cluttered ) design was selected. The decision infuriated Saint-Gaudens, who late savaged Barber ’ south accepted design .
[ 39 ] Virginia Culver, “ The Medal Collectors ’ Corner ”, The Numismatist, July 1968, 395. For an illustration of the quadriga, see Loock, Kolumbus in den USA, 131 .
[ 40 ] Ibid .
[ 41 ] Medals from recut dies and a raw obverse were 59 millimeter in diameter and were struck in bronze, blank metallic, and aluminum. The new obverse deleted the allegorical figures around Columbus ’ break, “ Cristoforo ” was anglicized to “ Christopher ”, and the inscription around the brim became “ Memento of the World ’ randomness Fair, Chicago 1893 ”. Culver, “ The Medal Collectors ’ Corner ”, 395 .
[ 42 ] Loock, Kolumbus in hideout USA, 348-51 and 361-81 .
[ 43 ] Higham, Strangers in the Land, 64-65, 87-96 .
[ 44 ] United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing ( USBEP ), “ U.S. CURRENCY FAQs ”. On the currentness reform, see Tschachler, George Washington on Coins and Currency, 123-28 .
[ 45 ] Loock, “ Goodbye Columbus, Hello Abe ! ” 91 .
[ 46 ] Deutsche Bundesbank, “ Das besondere Objekt ” [ “ The particular Object ” ], network document : not just “ ein Gegenstand des täglichen Gebrauchs für jedermann … als Werbeträger sollte sie ein Spiegelbild five hundred Werte sein, die sie repräsentiert, wie Stabilität, Kontinuität und Krisenfestig keit. [ … ] Daher wird die Banknote gelegentlich auch als Visitenkarte eines Staates bezeichnet. ”
[ 47 ] In this and the keep up paragraph I have drawn on Loock, Kolumbus in den USA, 244-45, 309-45 .
[ 48 ] See Schenkman, “ Mementoes of the Columbus Memorial ”, 75 .
[ 49 ] For far details, see Anon., “ A Columbus Day Medal ”, 207 .
[ 50 ] Loock, Kolumbus in lair USA, 23-37 .
[ 51 ] As if in ( a slightly awkward ) response to the declaration, American schoolchildren designed a pattern dollar showing a broke of Columbus on the obverse and an indian head and tree on the change by reversal : hypertext transfer protocol : //numismatics.org/collection/1992.13.1 ? lang=en .
[ 52 ] Weatherford, “ Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus ”, web document ; the article primitively appeared in the Baltimore Evening Sun on October 20, 2016 .
[ 53 ] Irving, History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, CW-Columbus, 353 .
[ 54 ] Solomon, “ Columbus Day : A Clash of Myth and History ”, ( 1995 ). References to Irving ’ s “ double standard ” and Columbus ’ purportedly “ sound policy and liberal views ” are to Hazlett, “ Literary Nationalism and Ambivalence in Washington Irving ’ s The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus ”, 567 .
[ 55 ] NBC12 Newsroom, “ Christopher Columbus Statue torn depressed, thrown in lake by protesters ”, and Johnny Diaz, “ Christopher Columbus Statues in Boston, Minnesota and Virginia Are Damaged ” .
[ 56 ] Tallman, “ Who Decides What ’ s Beautiful ? ”, 16, 20 .
[ 57 ] Connell, “ What Columbus Day Really Means ” .
[ 58 ] Ibid .
[ 59 ] Ibid .
[ 60 ] Ibid.
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